africa geography and history
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DESCRIPTIONAfrica Geography and History. Africa. Location Biggest after Asia. 3X the size of U.S. More independent nations than any other - 54 Straddles equator Atlantic Ocean & Indian Ocean & Med. Sea & Red Sea. Different Regions. North Africa - Morocco to Egypt Close contact with Europe and ME. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
AfricaGeography and History
AfricaLocationBiggest after Asia.3X the size of U.S.More independent nations than any other - 54
Straddles equatorAtlantic Ocean & Indian Ocean & Med. Sea & Red Sea.
Different RegionsNorth Africa - Morocco to EgyptClose contact with Europe and ME.
North Africa is linked to Sub-Saharan Africa
RegionsWest Africa - Mauritania to Nigeria
Central Africa - Zaire, Equator
East Africa - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania
South Africa - Zimbabwe, Zambia, S.Africa
LandformsMost of Africa is a vast plateau.Lie at different elevations.Highest - East and South
Escarpments - steep cliffs, divide the plateau from the coastal plain.
Cataracts - Large waterfalls.
Great Rift ValleyRed Sea to the Zambezi River.
Series of mountains and valleys.
Rich in Minerals and Metals. The sheer cliffs, high mountains, and deep valleys make building roads and railroads costly and dangerous.
RiversNile - Lifeblood of Egypt - Longest in World.
Zaire river - drains central Africa
Zambezi River - Victoria Falls
Natural ResourcesMineral ExportsZaire and Zambia - CopperS.Africa, Zaire, Botswana - Platinum and CobaltNigeria and Angola - Offshore OilGold and Diamonds found in riverbeds.
Resources are unevenly distributed throughout Africa
Climate and DiversityMost tropical of all continents.
Farther north or south of the equator, the shorter the rainy seasons.
Less than an inch to more than 80 inches.
Major Climate ZonesTropical Wet Climate Region
Narrow belt along the equator 8% of Africa
Guinea on west coast to Great Rift Valley in the east.
Tropical Wet Climate80 degrees average temperature.
60-120 inches average rainfall.Causes leaching.Washing away of nutrients due to heavy rains.
ProblemsDiseases in rainforestsTermitesDampness
Tropical w/Wet and Dry SeasonThe Savanna occupies this region.Over half of Africa is this.
Warm all year round.
Summer Hot and WetWinter Dry and Warm
20-80 inches of rain.Drought is not uncommon.
DesertificationPopulation growth has caused problems.During periods of moisture, people move there, chop trees down, and tear up the land.
In addition, grazing herds destroy the top roots of the grasses, so the thin layer of topsoil turns to dust. This causes desertification, or the turning of semidesert land into desert.
The Sahara Desert
SaharaDeserts cover about 40% of AfricaNorth SaharaSouth Kalahari and Namib
Sahara is larger than the U.S.Windswept rock, gravel, and shifting sand dunes.High of 130 degrees and less than 10 of rain/yr
Kalahari and NamibSouth AfricaKalahari is not as dry as Sahara.
Grasses and wild melons grow in a few places, and animals graze.
Namib one of the driest places on earth.
Mediterranean Climate ZonesSimilar to L.A.Summers are hot and dry.Winters are cool and moist.
Pleasant conditions attract European settlers
Climate and HealthMany insects breed and carry disease in tropical climates.Malaria kills 1 million every year.Sleeping Sickness Tsetse FlyInfects people and livestock.
River Blindness Senegal to KenyaBilharzia Snails that carry parasitic wormsWest Nile - Mosquitoes
PopulationNot densely populated. 675 millionClimate, Water, and Soil determine where people live.Heavy PopulationSouthern West AfricaMorocco and AlgeriaNile River ValleyEastern S.Africa
First PeopleWhere do you think the first people originated from?
Archaeologists study objects left by people.
Africas climate makes it difficult to learn about the past through artifacts.
Records on StoneFrom S.Africa to the Sahara, archaeologists have studied paintings on rock cliffs and cave walls.
Paintings show the tools, weapons, and hunting and gathering methods of early people.
Need for ChangeAbout 4000 years ago the Sahara was changing. Less rain fell, Lakes and rivers dried up. People moved.
Some think that people moved to the Nile River Valley. Where is that?
Nile River ValleySome people gave up the nomadic life of hunting and gathering.
Earliest civilization developed in Egypt about 7000 years ago.
Fertile soils and plentiful wildlife allowed people to farm and hunt.
Nile River Valley3,000 B.C. Pharaohs united ancient Egypt.
Pharaohs expanded their empire.
Through trade and conquest, they exchanged knowledge and ideas with other cultures.
Religion and GovernmentPolytheisticDifferent gods controlled the forces of nature.Chief god was Amon-Re, the Sun GodOsiris, god of the underworld and the Nile.
Life after death is central to Egyptian religion.
Pharaohs and Nobles prepared for life after death.
Gift of the NileThe Nile flooded every year up to 1970
Aswan Dam stopped the flooding.
What would be some hidden costs of this?
Achievements of EgyptiansHieroglyphics used pictures and symbols.
Knowledge of stars and planets to produce the calendar.
Geometry to survey flood plains.
Surgery to set fractured bones.
Kingdom of the KushTrade b/t Egypt and Nubia and Kush
At times, Egypt conquered lands to the south.
The Kushites had control of Egypt around 750 B.C. but were driven out by the Assyrians and their iron weapons.
KushAt first the Kush flourished.
Worshipped same gods and made a capital at Meroe along the Nile.
Over time, however, the Kush became gods themselves and they adapted to form their own alphabet.
IronAfter losing to the Assyrians, the Kush learned to make Iron weapons.
Egyptians still decided to use bronze.
Kush profited from trade.
By 200 A.D. the Kush had been run out by invasions.
Kingdom of AxumDeveloped on the high plateaus of what is today Ethiopia.
Sent spices, gems, and ivory north into Egypt, across the Red Sea to Arabia, and across the Indian Ocean to South Asia.
Slave TradeB/w 1500-1800, 10-15 million slaves were sent to the Americas.Effects of Slave TradeIndustrialization slowly stopped the slave trade.Increased wars and tension.Sierra LeoneColony resettled by freed slaves.
LiberiaColony established by freed American slaves.
Slave TradeDemand for slaves limited until settling of Americas.
First Europeans used Native Americans to mine gold and silver and to work on their plantations.
They then looked to Africa Tropical Climates
Slave TradeMost slaves were people who were captured in war.
Others sold themselves into slavery because of famine and the need to support their family.
Atlantic Slave TradeEuropean slave traders relied on local African rulers to supply them with slaves.
They paid for slaves with guns.
As a result, Slave Traders used guns to overtake villages.
Lasted 400 years. Est. 20-30 million died.
Effects of Slave TradeIndustrialization decreased the need for slaves.
Economic Conditions were bad.Young men and women were seized.
Caused a DiasporaSpreading out or scattering of people.
Imperialism, 1800sEuropeans settle Africa for MotivesEconomic, nationalism, political, religious.E raw materials, palm oil for soaps, cotton, gum, rubber, ivory, hardwoods.
MotivesScramble for colonies.Medical Advancements and Maxim GunEurope competes for colonies. BelgiumPush European ways of life.
African ResistanceMany resisted Europeans. - Ethiopia Wars and fighting greatly decrease African population
ImperialismColonial GovernmentsDirect and Indirect ruleEuropeans introduce their laws. Africans dont like. Not personal and no consensus.
Many laws have abstract right and wrongs.
Direct Colonial power from the governments.Indirect Left traditional rulers in place. Britain made decisions but left the enforcing up to traditional rulers.
No power or influence in either was given to the African leaders.
A Different EconomyMoney EconomyAfrican communities had been largely self-sufficient. Villagers bartered, or traded, for goods they needed.
They decided to sell their labor for money.
Now they had to pay taxes in cash instead of goods.
Effects of Money EconomyVillages ChangedMen went to work in mines and on farms.
Some people gained wealth as they accumulated capital and property.
Changed attitude towards land. Used to be community, now owned by individuals.
Led to growing of cash crops that could be exported on the world economy instead of just for themselves.
Material ImprovementsBrought transportation and communication.Made travel easier but who had to build the roads and put up the telegraph lines?
Transportation increased likelihood of migration of workers.
Hospitals were set up along with better sanitation in the cities.
African NationalismNationalism grew out of European control.Following WWII independence movements began to take shape.
1950 Liberia, Ethiopia, S.A. and Egypt1957 Ghana became the 1st African nation to gain independence.
Building GovernmentsUnprepared for independence.Faced meeting the needs of their people.National unity through sometimes un-unified borders.Civil War, Dictatorships, Military Rule.
Democracy started to take shape.
African SocialismThe government owns & operates business.