violence in darfur, sudan

of 49 /49
Violence in Violence in Darfur, Sudan Darfur, Sudan Genocide or Conflict? Genocide or Conflict?

Author: anjelita-ortiz

Post on 01-Jan-2016




1 download

Embed Size (px)


Violence in Darfur, Sudan. Genocide or Conflict?. Violence in Darfur, Sudan Quiz. What year did Sudan receive independence? (Same year that internal conflict began) What are the two main ethnic groups fighting? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Violence in Darfur, SudanGenocide or Conflict?

  • Violence in Darfur, Sudan QuizWhat year did Sudan receive independence? (Same year that internal conflict began)What are the two main ethnic groups fighting?Which country planned to unify the two regions of Sudan, before the civil war broke out?What is the natural resource that makes this even more of a global conflict?What is the name of the President of Sudan?What two occupations do the land tensions derive from? Arabs v. AfricansName one of the rebel groups involved in this conflict?What is the pro-government militia called?What types of actions (atrocities) has the Government militia been accused of?What country has received most of the refugees and displaced people?

  • Answers1956Northern Arabs v. Southern Black AfricansBritainOilOmar Al-BashirArabs = nomadic herding / Africans = FarmersSLA, SLM, JEM, National Redemption FrontJanjaweedRape, murder, burning villages and crops, poison water supplies, etc.Chad

  • SudanWas the Largest country in Africa (united) Who lives there?Oil 70% profit for military funding6 Million in population: povertySurvive on farming (Africans) and nomadic herding (Arabs)Darfur, Sudan

    Darfur is a desert region located in the far west of northern Sudan. It is bigger than California andbefore major violence erupted in 2003had a population of about six million.

  • Darfur is a desert region located in the far west of Sudan, the biggest country in Africa.

  • Issue at handDarfur, a large region in western Sudan, is home to numerous ethnic groups, some Arab and some who go by the label African. Violence broke out in 2003, when African rebels demanding better treatment for Darfur attacked a Sudanese military site. The Sudanese government retaliated by arming Arab militias and pitting them against the rebels.

  • Sides and PerspectivesOne side of the conflict is an uprising by Darfuri African rebels wanting greater funding for Darfur and more influence for Darfuri politicians in Sudanese national politics. (Several different rebel groups support different leaders/policies and are not coming to agreements to resolve conflict)Other side is a campaign by government-supported Arab militias, the Janjaweed, to defeat the rebels, which quickly expanded into a campaign to kill or displace hundreds of thousands of Darfuri Africans, mainly civilians, throughout the region.

  • JanjaweedA collection of Darfur-based Arab militias, supposedly armed by the Sudanese government to fight African rebels in Darfur Attack villages, raping and killing inhabitants Sixteen known Janjaweed bases Membership numbers estimated at a few thousand

  • Janjaweed

  • Rebel Groups SLM, JEM, SLASLM = Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) Used guerrilla tactics to fight government forces from Khartoum in the first civil war JEM=Justice and Equality MovementIslamist rebel group in Darfur region, which came to prominence in 2003 Demands greater political and economic rights for Darfuris in national government

  • Rebel Groups contSLA = Sudan Liberation ArmyDarfuri rebel group founded in 2001 composed almost entirely of African Darfuris Target of the Sudanese military and the janjaweed after their attack on government sites in 2003 Seeks better treatment for Darfur from Sudanese government Several Rebel groups have broken off and formed splinter groups based on geographic regions.

  • Root of the Conflict British ColonyNIFSLA/MJEMOmar al-BashirPictured Janjaweed

  • Omar Al-BashirCame to power in 1989 in a military coup and President of Sudan since 1993 Indicted on charge of genocide by International Criminal Court in 2008 Banned political parties, eliminated the free press, and instituted Islamic law in the north of Sudan Has reportedly supported the Janjaweed and has made it difficult for humanitarian aid workers to enter the region Arrested media, humanitarian aid workers, etc. because of the threat of spying

  • 2003 Violence beginsSide #1: an uprising by some of Sudans poorest people, the African rebels, who were demanding greater representation for their communities in the Arab-dominated national government; increased federal funding for Darfurs schools, hospitals, and public services; and a share of Sudans oil revenue Side #2: a campaign by government-backed Arab militias, known collectively as the Janjaweed, to drive African farmers off fertile land, an increasingly scarce commodity in drought-ravaged Darfur

  • SLA

  • SLM

  • Burned shops in an Abandoned Village between Geneina and Sisi

  • Cease-fire?

    Peace Agreements/ResolutionsDPAHas this worked?UN Resolution 1706

  • Recent NewsThe International Criminal Court indicted President Bashir on July 14, 2008, for genocide and issued an arrest warrant on March 4, 2009, for war crimes. While these moves were applauded by many Western leaders, they were strongly criticized by several Arab and African leaders and by humanitarian organizations afraid that provoking President Bashir would endanger their staff and jeopardize the peace deals. Ruling was that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute him for genocide.

  • Recent NewsBy the fall of 2009, no resolutions were solid enough to maintain the peace. Conflict-related violence was dwindling in Darfur, however tribal clashes in the south were sharply intensifying. In 2009, tensions over planned national elections in 2010 rose and aid groups began the new year by warning that increased diplomacy was needed to keep the few peace accords from collapsing.

  • Recent NewsIn April 2010, President Bashir secured an easy victory in Sudans first multiparty elections since 1986. Although the election was marred by opposition boycotts, fraud, and intimidation, the international community readily accepted its resultsWorld Conflicts

  • Global ImplicationsWorld oil productionBecause there are significant oil reserves in and around Sudan, continued instability in Darfur could affect world oil production. The longer the Darfuri conflict goes on, the greater the chance that the UN will impose an embargo on Sudanese oil or that rebel groups in Darfur will try and sabotage oil pipelines. :

  • Interview with Omar Al-Bashir NBC's Ann Curry gets an exclusive interview with Sudan President Omar al-Bashir, and asks about the ongoing atrocities in Darfur.

  • South Sudan54th Country in Africa!

  • Separate State in SudanAfter decades of fighting for independence from the north, southern Sudan seceded on July 9, 2011 and became the Republic of South Sudan.

    South Sudan has become the world's newest nation, the climax of a process made possible by the 2005 peace deal that ended a long and bloody civil war.

  • South Sudan in the Future

    Facts and figures:Population: 7.5-9.7 millionSize: 619,745 sq km (239,285 sq miles), larger than Spain and Portugal combinedMajor languages: English, Arabic (both official), Juba Arabic, DinkaReligion: Traditional and a Christian minorityMain export: Oil

  • South Sudan in the FutureChallenges ahead:One of world's least developed countries: Worst maternal mortality rate; most children below 13 not in school; 84% of women are illiterateRelations with Sudan: Dividing debts and oil; border disputes; citizenshipSecurity: At least seven active rebel groups

  • South Sudan becomes an Independent state Video:

  • At midnight on Saturday, July 9, residents of Juba began celebrating the independence of South Sudan with singing, dancing, speeches and military parades.

  • After more than five decades of an underdog, guerrilla struggle and two million lives lost, the Republic of South Sudan became Africas 54th state.

  • Many of those who turned out to celebrate, overcome with emotion, spoke of their fathers, mothers, sons and daughters who were killed in the long struggle to break free from the Arab-dominated north.

  • Thousands of soldiers lined the freshly-painted curbs with tiger patches on their arms and assault rifles in their hands. The new nation is being built on a guerrilla army, the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army, whose field commanders are now South Sudans political leaders.

  • We have waited for more than 56 years for this," said South Sudans president, Salva Kiir, wearing a signature black cowboy hat given to him by Mr. Bush. It is a dream that has come true.

  • An American-backed treaty set the stage for a referendum in January in which 98.8 percent of southerners voted for independence. At 1:20 p.m. on Saturday, the southerners officially proclaimed their freedom.

  • Leaders from around the world cheered during the ceremonies. Among them was the president of Sudan, Omar Hassan al-Bashir, whose appearance was a surprise because he was indicted by the International Criminal Court on genocide charges over the massacres in Darfur.

  • Videos Obamas Policy (2009) on Sudan George Clooney visits Sudan as an United Nations activist