حرب (arabic word for war). darfur is in sudan, which is in africa. sudan is africa’s largest...

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ب ر ح(Arabic word for war) DARFUR Erica Tisdale HSP-406

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  • (Arabic word for war)
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  • Darfur is in Sudan, which is in Africa. Sudan is Africas largest country, and Darfur is approximately the size of France. Sudan is strategically important to the US because it is a back-door to the Middle-East. Due to its size, Sudan has the potential to become a major power in Africa, and oil is one of its natural resources (Reyna) Where is Darfur?
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  • In the North, it is mostly desert, there are camel, sheep, and goat farmers, who also practice a little horticulture. Important tribes in the North are the Zaghawa and various Arab groups. In the Savannah and Jebel Marra (an extinct volcanic mountain range) there are permanent farmers who grow millet and sorghum. Some important tribes here are: Fur, Daju, Tunjur, Masalit, Berti, and Bergid. In the southern Savannah there are a large number of cattle farmers, mostly Arabic and clumped together as Baqqarah (Reyna). Who lives in Darfur?
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  • There are more than thirty ethnic groups that live in Darfur, but these can be divided in two main groups, Arabic and African (Schimmer).
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  • Prior to 2003, there had been a history of movement and intermarriage amongst the peoples living in Darfur. Many Arab and non-Arab people share commonalities, traditions, and the same homelands (Schimmer). Sudan has had centuries of Arab and African cultures of common Arabic languages, Muslim faith, and other shared experiences in Darfur (Marlowe). Although there has been continued conflict, there had always been traditional framework set up to solve conflicts (Marlowe). History of Darfur
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  • There were thirteen different conflicts in Darfur region, Sudan between 1957 and 1989. Six of which were fought between Arab nomadic communities, four between non- Arab communities. This low level fighting is thought to have been intensified and continued on due to the drought in the 1980s. The drought caused damage to the crops of the nomads living in Northern Darfur, and resulted in resentment towards the seasonal grazing practices of the Zagahawa herdsman who would come into the Arab occupied grazing lands. In turn, African farmers became hostile towards Arab nomads from the North, who while searching for pasture, trampled the African farmers crops (Abiodun). Famine was increasing in the North (Reyna).
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  • Less rainfall resulted in more migration of northern people, who were mostly Arab, to more southern regions. Most often the Arab people headed to Jebel Marra and Dar Masalit (Reyna). This resluted in extreme pressure on the land. Before 2003, this land produced 45%-60% agriculture and 10%- 30% livestock for the households that farmed it. After the pro-government attacks, the production has greatly reduced. Partly due to the damaged land but also due to displaced farmers (Schimmer).
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  • Following the drought from 1984-1985, local conflicts continued to break out between these same groups over dwindling natural resources. It was this low level fighting that eventually erupted into the much larger conflict that occurred in 2003 between SLM/A and JEM. (The Sudanese Liberation Army/Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) (Abidun).
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  • In 1994, the Sudanese Government ruled by the National Islamic Front (NIF) and the regime of General Omar al- Bashir divided Darfur into three districts. These are North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur. These areas are approximately 39% Arab and 61% African, with 70% of these being Muslim and the rest are Christian or traditional believers. The creation of these three districts was seen by some as a way to decentralize the control by the traditionally non-Arab Muslim. The historical and stable powers amongst the tribes were removed and replaced with primarily Arab politicians and administrators in government offices (Schimmer). Darfur was swiftly becoming a dar-al-harba (a land of war) (Reyna). Darfur Divided
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  • Arabs began to form militias in the mid 1980s which produced Janjawid, and in response, the African tribes Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa formed their own militia. First there was the Darfur Liberation Front (LIF), then the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA), and the the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) (Reyna). The Fighting Increased
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  • The Sudanese Air Force destroyed villages by bombing them and then the Janjawid would come in and loot, torture, rape, butcher, and terrorize anyone who was left (Reyna). The Sudanese government supplied the Janjawid with weapons and supported the attacks on civilian areas with its full military arsenal (Marlowe). The SLA and JEM would retaliate when possible (Reyna). During these acts of violence, livestock and other food sources would be stolen, killed, or maimed leaving any survivors likely to starve (Schimmer). The Government Responded
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  • They took my small child who had only a common cold. When they heard he was the son of a rebel, they killed the childThey came and took twenty-eight goats and sheep from my place. Then they went looking for my other home. They took eighty sheep and goats and burned the village. Then theywent to my cattle camp and took one hundred cows and three girlsMy wives went and built another home at a distant placeThey came and broke down the homeThey caught my little girl and took her away. The women they threw intoa big fire. You know those big Dinka huts that are raised on high platforms. They put fire under the hut. The hut was turned into an oven in which the women burned (Marlowe). Chief Stephen Thongkol Anyijong of Atwot
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  • Previously, we and the Arabs exchanged marriageIt was a complete community life. In the past, in peace time, the Arab nomads moved from south to the north of Darfur after the rainy season. They would spend the whole winter in the north, with us, with Fur, Masalit, with any tribe. We would help each other. When someone lost some of his livestock, everyone came and helped seek the lost animals. We built good relations between us. Definitely, some conflicts happened between individuals, and then the tribal leaders and the elders sat together and solved the problemAfter the livestock grew bigger, and the number of citizens themselves grew larger, the farmers needed a wider area of land to plant for their food, and the herders also needed a wider area for their livestock. The needs of the life for the herders and the farmers came into conflict, and the government found the chance to wedge between the two and keep them separate and push them towards war (Marlowe). An Elder In Darfur
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  • The government deployed its troops to outside areas (near El Fashir) and killed people. They captured some of them and dragged them through the streets of El Fashir and burned them in front of a crowd of spectators. In a town north of El Fashir, all of us saw a man who was captured by the government. They brought him in broad daylight. They tied his hands behind him, tied his legs, strung him in the tree, and burned a plastic tire on top of him. The plastic tire melted on his body. The Janjawid and the government rape girls. They cut the womans vagina with a knife. In Jebbel Marra, we saw a pregnant woman murdered by the Janjawid. They cut her womb. There were twins, the babies were still alive. This is a horrible image (Marlowe). Darfurian Testimonial
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  • Sudanese soldiers are abducting women at gunpoint and leading them away from their village. Some soldiers are hiding in trees and ambushing villagers. Airplanes and helicopters target homes and set them on fire (Powers).
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  • The young boy was nine when his village in Darfur was attacked by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militias in 2003. This drawing depicts in detail some of the exactions committed by the Janjaweed (on foot and on horses) and the Sudanese forces (in tanks, machine-gun-mounted vehicles, and planes) (Powers).
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  • A twelve-year-old Darfuri boy created this drawing which depicts his village in Darfur being attacked when he was eight years old. The drawing shows crops that were destroyed by a militia group, people being killed, and houses being burned down. Militiamen on camels, some on foot, and others in trucks, are seen attacking the village (Powers)
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  • The Sudanese military are hiding in trees and shooting Darfuri civilians. The drawing also depicts houses burning after being bombed by military helicopters and jets. Reinforcements, including armored tanks and trucks mounted with heavy machine guns, are coming into the village (Powers).
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  • Efforts to find a solution to the conflict in Darfur began almost as soon as the severe warring broke out in 2003 (Lugman). The Chadian President Idress Derby led the Abeche mediation, which led to the signing of the Abeche ceasefire on September 3, 2003. The agreement quickly collapsed due to the many provisional violations committed mostly by the government and their armed militia (Lugman). A Solution
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  • The African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) was launched in July 2004. This was a full peace- keeping mission with very specific objectives; to protect civilians, safe delivery of humanitarian aid, and to monitor the ceasefire agreement between two rebel groups and the government of Sudan (Lugman). The Darfur Peace Agreement was signed on May 5, 2006, but was doomed to fail. Mostly because not all groups agreed to the conditions of the agreement (Lugman).
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  • Inadequate funding for AMIS, which comes from foreign countries (the U.S., Europe, Canada, and others) a lack of experience, and a lack of personnel resulted in the incapability of AMIS to carry out their mission. They were also not capable of holding the responsible parties accountable for their part in the conflict (Lugman). This led to the deployment of the UNAMID, The United Nations African Human Mission in Darfur, who had adequate resources and backing to secure and protect in 2008(Lugman).
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  • UNAMID is currently the largest UN peacekeeping mission in the world, with an authorized troop strength at almost 20,000 (Lugman).
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  • The Council express deep concern at the deteriorating security situation in some parts of Darfur, including ceasefire violations, attacks by rebel groups, aerial bombardment by the Govermment of Sudan, inter-tribal fighting, attacks on humanitarian personnel and peacekeepers, which have restricted humanitarian access to conflict areas where vulnerable civilian populations reside, as contained in the Secretary General report... The Council calls on all parties to cease hostilities, including all acts of violence committed against civilians, and urgently facilitate unhindered humanitarian access (Lugman). As much as UNAMID has tried to bring peace to Darfur, the process is still in a state of limbo (Lugman). Rather than been view essentially as failure on the part of UNAMID, the situation in Darfur is largely an indication of the complexity of peacekeeping and the challenge of negotiating sustainable peace in the context of an intractable conflict (Lugman). UN Security Council; Notes on Darfur July 2011
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  • It has been ten years since Darfur was infiltrated and attacked by the Sudanese Government. Over 300,000 people have died and more than 3 million have been displaced (Kinnock). Ten Years Has Passed
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  • Today in Darfur, the misery goes on, with indicted criminals going free, violence escalating and over 3 million people relying on food aid. Yet, most frighteningly, and in an appalling repetition of history, the Sudanese government has spent the past 18 months deploying the same brutal tactics it used in Darfur to crush an armed rebellion in another part of Sudan. Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, often called the "Two Areas", are two little-known corners of one of the biggest countries in Africa, which might soon be as notorious as Darfur unless the world takes action (Kinnock). Sudan Threatens to Repeat Darfur
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  • As in Darfur, civilians in the Two Areas, mainly women and children, have been caught in the crossfire as the Sudanese armed forces wage war far from the attention of the world's media. In an effort to drive the population from their land through fear and starvation, the government of Sudan has blocked humanitarian assistance to the Two Areas, targeted civilians through indiscriminate aerial bombardment and ground attacks, and carefully timed offensives designed to disrupt the planting and harvesting seasons (Kinnock).
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  • The UN estimates that over 1.2 million people have been displaced or severely affected by violence. Many are living on one meal every five days; independent experts now warn that parts of southern Kordofan and Blue Nile face the very real prospect of a man-made famine by April 2013. Coping mechanisms have been largely exhausted and recent visitors report refugees resorting to eating roots and leaves and being forced to live in caves (Kinnock).famine
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  • As we recognize the ten-year anniversary of the conflict in Darfur, it is time to learn from the lessons of history. A decade ago, the UN security council neglected atrocities in Darfur, failing to recognize the significance of this remote conflict for wider peace across the region and doing so with devastating consequences. This cycle threatens to recur, as the security council the world's premier body for peace, security and the protection of people remains largely silent on the plight of the people of the Two Areas, failing to back up its own resolutions on this conflict and not putting its political muscle behind African Union plans to end the suffering (Kinnock).
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  • References Abiodun, O. (2011). Darfur: A complicated peace process?. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 3(1), 183-207. Kinnock, G., & Cappuano, M. (2013, March 10). A decade on, Sudan threatens to repeat the tragedy of Darfur. The Guardian [United Kingdm]. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/mar/10/decade-on-sudan-tragedy-darfur http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/mar/10/decade-on-sudan-tragedy-darfur Lugman, S., & Omede, J. (2012). From AMIS to UNAMID : The African Union, the United Nations and the challenges of sustainable peace in Darfur, Sudan. Canadian Social Science, 8(1), 60-69. Mamdani, M. (2009, June 8). There may have been no water, but the province was awash with guns. New Statesman, 138(4952), 34-37. Marlowe, J., Bain, A., Shapiro, A., Rusesabagina, P., & Deng, F. M. (2006). Darfur diaries: Stories of survival. New York: Nation Books.
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  • Powers, A., & Lewis, B. (2012). What the heart remembers: The women and children of Darfur. Art Documentation: Bulletin of the Art Libraries Society of North America, 31(1), 22-33. Reyna, S. P. (2010). The disasters of war in Darfur, 1950-2004. Third World Quarterly, 31(8), 1297-1320. Schimmer, R. (n.d.). Tracking the genocide in Darfur-population displacement as recorded by remote sensing (36). Retrieved from Yale University Genocide Studies Program website: http://www.yale.edu/gsp/gis-files/darfur/Tracking-Genocide-in- Darfur-by-Remote-Sensing_No.36.pdfhttp://www.yale.edu/gsp/gis-files/darfur/Tracking-Genocide-in- Darfur-by-Remote-Sensing_No.36.pdf All pictures courtesy of Google Images unless otherwise noted