conflict in sudan - darfur

Click here to load reader

Post on 31-Oct-2014

1.148 views

Category:

Education

3 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Armed groups, the 'Sudan Liberation Army' (SLA) and 'Justice and Equality Movement' (JEM), began the war. Reasons are cited as lack of economic development which demands a greater share of country’s resources and exclusion from the political administration of Khartoum. Attacks on towns, government establishments and civilians in Darfur resulted in the deaths of hundreds of policemen and civilians and the breakdown of law and order in Darfur. An area where inhabitants depend on natural resources the severe impact of the continuing climatic changes and droughts on accessibility to land and water has a detrimental effect on the livelihood in Darfur as well as the rest of Sudan.

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1. Conflict in Sudan - Darfur By Arundathie Abeysinghe Lecturer International Aviation Academy SriLankan Airlines
  • 2. Introduction Armed groups, the 'Sudan Liberation Army' (SLA) and 'Justice and Equality Movement' (JEM), began the war Reasons are cited as lack of economic development which demands a greater share of countrys resources and exclusion from the political administration of Khartoum
  • 3. Introduction. Attacks on towns, government establishments and civilians in Darfur resulted in the deaths of hundreds of policemen and civilians and the breakdown of law and order in Darfur An area where inhabitants depend on natural resources the severe impact of the continuing climatic changes and droughts on accessibility to land and water has a detrimental effect on the livelihood in Darfur as well as the rest of Sudan
  • 4. Introduction. First, colonizers drew the boundaries of present-day Sudan without heed to the different religious and ethnic groups that already inhabited the territory, which was under joint Anglo-Egyptian control until 1956 This set the stage for showdowns between the north, populated predominantly by Arab Muslims, and the south, populated largely by animists and Christians of African origin
  • 5. Introduction. The regime of President Omar al- Bashir who came to power after a military coup in 1989 promotes Islamist and Arab-centric policies adding an ethnic element to his administration Decision making power is centralized with the GOS
  • 6. Introduction. Regional governance has low capacity due to centralization of political power in Khartoum Dividing of Darfur into 3 states by the GOS has severely weakened the political power in Darfur Darfur has been re-districted by GOS and appointed their own governors thereby increasing the influence over the region
  • 7. Conflict Analysis Model Context C.R. - SIPABIO Sources Parties Issues Relationship Power Bond Patterns Outcomes Intervention Behaviors Attitudes /Feelings
  • 8. Socio economic/political setting 2-3% rate in population increase Widespread poverty and underdevelopment Most of the economic growth from increased petroleum exports Economic growth concentrated in the states surrounding Khartoum and revenue of the oil industry remaining with central government thus depriving people of development and alternative employment
  • 9. Socio economic & political . Main professions are agriculture and pastoral activities resulting in competition for land in Darfur which is 7% of Sudan There are around 80 tribes and ethnic groups predominantly Muslims, divided between nomadic and sedentary communities in Darfur
  • 10. Socio economic & political . African agriculturalists consisting of Fur (dominant tribe), Masaalit, Tama,Tunjur etc. while pastoralists mainly includes tribes of Arab descent Over decades of civil wars have resulted in approx. 5 million internally displaced persons or international refugees ranking Sudan first in the world for displaced persons
  • 11. Primary Parties to the conflict The Government of Sudan GOS Government security forces GOS sponsored Black, nomadic , Arab speaking proxy militia group Janjaweed formed to subdue the rebellion The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) headed by Minni Minawai Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
  • 12. Parties to the conflict Secondary Internally displaced persons in Darfur, refugees & civilians Opposition Parties, Arab Tribes
  • 13. Parties to the conflict Tertiary UN African Union (AU) USA Donors & other international organizations
  • 14. Culture Many of the racist attitudes, traditionally directed toward slaves have been redirected to the sedentary non-Arab racist ideology This ideology plays an important part of the genocide, the sharp distinctions between Arabs and Africans in the racially mixed Darfur region had not been drawn until the ideology of pan-Arabism that came out of Libya made itself felt
  • 15. Culture. They foisted a racial label on a farming people whose way of life they simultaneously disdained and felt threatened by Blacks in Sudan are seen as inferior to the Arabs, the racism, racial sentiments against non-Arabs have been used & manipulated by the central government
  • 16. Geography Darfur is located in the western region of Sudan bordering Libya from northwest and Chad on the west and is susceptible to political events in Chad Inhabitants are heavily dependent on natural resource base and access to land and water are crucial for sustainable livelihoods Majority live on agriculture, farming or pastoralist
  • 17. Geography. Continuous climatic change resulting in severe droughts has remained a backburner issue In 2007 UN Secretary General Ban ki Moon released an editorial in the Washington Post mentions that the Darfur conflict began as an ecological crisis
  • 18. Geography. 20 year Sahelian drought resulted in increased desertification and decrease rainfall in northern and central Darfur declining the availability of fresh water , deteriorating farmland and grazing areas Discovery of oil in Darfur in 2005 increased land grabbing and village burning by Janjaweeds
  • 19. Gender Rape is a common weapon used in Darfur, an unknown number of women and girls have been abducted, raped, and abused In Darfur sexual violence is being broadly used as a systematic weapon of war against girls and women 82% of women were raped while pursuing their normal daily activities and 4% of women reported that the rape occurred while fleeing their home village
  • 20. Gender. Rape is typically accompanied by further violence: 28% of the victims testified that they were raped numerous times, by either single or multiple perpetrators 50% of the victims reported being beaten with sticks, whips, or axes, or inflicted with other physical violence
  • 21. Gender. Women who become pregnant after being raped are often treated as criminals and are often subjected to brutal treatment by police Rape in Darfur is considered to be genocidal due to the racial nature of the sexual attacks to impregnate women to produce Arabic children
  • 22. Issues Racism is at the root of Sudan's Darfur crisis "Arab militia is the racist, fundamentalist and undemocratic Sudanese state those who call themselves Arabs point to Arab ancestors who arrived as traders both before and after the arrival of Islam and gradually converted local Sudanese to the Islamic faith Devastated by the drought of early 80s - Christian Science Monitor
  • 23. Issues. Affected by the spillover of wars between Chad & Libya Neglect of the region by the desponded central government Conflicting land management policies of GOS resulted in land grabbing, marginalization, favoritism for politically connected, becoming the norm
  • 24. ABC Triangle Rebel Groups Behaviour Attack s against government forces bombing, killing, destruction, looting Refusal to sign peace accords Needs Recognition & political autonomy Development & economic stability Wealth sharing Security Attitudes Hatred Mistrust Anger Frustration Insecurity Context Geopolitical struggle between Chad,libiya & sudan Economic marginalization restriction on resources & movement drought Ethnic discriminations Forced conversions Forced displacement Ethnic polarization
  • 25. ABC Triangle Government of Sudan Behaviour Suppression on rebels using force Ethnic mobilization & extensive use of proxy militias called Janajweeds for mass killings in tribal villages Genocide, mass rape Manipulation of ethnic & tribal animosities Destruction of economic livelihood, forced relocations Needs Political stability Security/ Survival Divide & rule Centralized control of political power & economic resources Attitudes Mistrust Anger Insecurity U