summary quote paraphrase workshop

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HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: SUMMARY SUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA) (CAPTURING THE IDEA) QUOTE QUOTE (USING (USING NUGGETS NUGGETS OF TEXT) OF TEXT) PARAPHRASE PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE) (BORROWING LANGUAGE)

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  • HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:SUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA)

    QUOTE (USING NUGGETS OF TEXT)

    PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)

  • HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOPThis workshop is an introduction to how writers use summary/quotes/paraphrases.

    Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you will need later onso read purposefully.

    Complete all the activities.

    Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.

    Please ask your instructor if you have any questions.

    Also visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a great resource.

  • WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN OUR EVERY DAY LIVESLet's consider music--

    In many songs, writers will:

    Reduce/nutshell what story/event is about: Summary

    Restate exactly a cool group of words: Quote

    Rearrange/borrow language: Paraphrase

    Look at next slide for example:

  • EXAMPLE:RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEERhttp://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en

    You know Dasher, and Dancer, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, andDonner and BlitzenBut do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all

    Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it you would even say it glows

    All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him namesSummary (nutshell 5 year event) they never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games.

    Then one foggy Christmas eve Santa came to say: Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa)wont you guide my sleigh tonight?

    Then all the reindeer loved him as they shouted out with glee,

    Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, youll go down in history!Paraphrase (some words are original and some are borrowed from fellas)

  • Let's Practice Summary

    What are the Main ideas here?

  • SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE BIG PICTURE

  • Many writers include a summary of their sources before adding a quote or parphrase.The author nutshells the information:He has done his homework; he understands the thing he has read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes. Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader, and he explains what the thing is in a nutshell. Assume an intelligent audience, but never assume your audience has taken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-world audience. In the introduction (background info), the writer summarizes the thing he is writing about-- in the previous song example, he summarizes the story:

    (Summary of 5 year event)

    Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it you would even say it glows

    All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him names of they never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games.

  • Summary helps the reader understand how the source fits into the research.

    Readers better understand the text.

    Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.

    Readers better trust the writer as a researcher.

    A writer picks only the main points for a summary.

  • He uses his own words to explain what the thing is about before he jumps into the meat of his writing.When summarizing, the writer explains the main points of a text in his/her own words. We use these so the reader never asks the question:Does this writer know what he/she is talking about?

  • EXAMPLEBelow is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLA Journal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages ina nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about mainideas the article explores. The summary has only the main points ofthe article, and it is written in the students own words:

    Diana Agys text, Belinda, Another Eve examines the use of Biblicalpassages in Alexander Popes Rape of the Lock. She explains how thesepassages help keep women in a lower position in society and how thesewomen contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset isstill active today (Agy).

    Notice the writer introduces the source and cites it at the end. All summaries are cited.

  • Here is a before and after look:Example #1: Writing without summary of source:In a Nature Today journal article, the author states ten out of every11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year(57).Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is concerned about several things: writers confidence, sources content, and how the quote relates to the topic.

    Example#2: Same piece with a summary:In a Nature Today journal article, the author explores researchconcerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks thattransmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. Shetalks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a highinfestation rate. The author states, Ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year(57).

    Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it sets up the quote.

  • Summary descriptionWriters also use summary to describe a person or an event for the reader before they continue on with their narrative. Summary description helps develop the story, and it helps the reader better connect to the characters.With summary description,We move from barely seeing the character

    to a better understanding of who she is.

  • Here is a before and after look:Example #1: Writing without summary description:My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia. Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.

    Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. Leisa was 21 years old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition. She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.

    Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.

  • Some writers leave summary out of their text for a variety of reasons:

    1. They did not read the entire source.2. They do not understand the entire source.3. They have learned to string along quotesso they only look for quotes they might use when reading.

    When we first learn how to write, we might think we have to use many quotes, or we might believe research is when we change a word here and there.

    Summarizing helps prepare the audience.If you dont summarize, your audience may not stay focused.

    Summary is something we use in everyday life.

  • When we dont understand our sources, we dont have confidence in our writing:Confident Writer:I understand my sourceIll talk it to you.I understand how my source fits into my paper.I have read and re-read my source; I know it.I can tell my reader what my source is about in my own wordsI can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.

    Non-Confident Writer:I have only read my source once.I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.I think my source is goodbut I dont understand it.I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.I can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at

  • Let's Practice SummaryActivity # 1

    Summarize the following in two-three sentences each:Summarize your favorite song. For example:Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer is a song about the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually turned his disability into an asset, and his peers learned how to appreciate diversity (Rudolph).

    Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example:Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the Empires faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator).

  • Activity #2Let's look at your paper:Take the paper you are working on now and add summary.If you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two main characters. Do you use summary description with them? Can the reader see them and understand who they are because of your summary? On your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and add 2-4 sentences of summary description for each.

    If you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure to summarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use your targeted information. Hold the readers hand and show that you are an expert with that one source.On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2-4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite it at the end.

  • Let's Practice Quoting(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)

  • Let's Revisit RudolphSanta came to say:Rudolph with your nose so bright, wont you guide my sleigh tonight?

    In the song, Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer, the writer quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?

  • DETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTEWhen we take notes from movies, films, books, or the internet, we will gather quotes that seem important to us at that time.

    Sift through these.

    You are looking for only those nuggets that will drive home your main point.

    The next few activities will help us better understand when and when not to quote

  • QUOTE

    WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?

  • Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes:

    When the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it will help develop a particular point.When using an important statistic that is absolutely necessary to make a strong point.When quoting necessary dialogue.When quoting from an authority again, this quote must be absolutely necessary in the development of the paper.When quoting a text that seems to create tension or conflict with your own research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they are allowing the opposite side to speak directly.There are other general rules; ask your instructor if you have any questions.

    Let's look at the list:

  • ACTIVITY # 4Copy the three examples below.Use quotation marks ( )when using the exact wording from another text:

    Interview: Joe said, JCC is a great college.

    Literature analysis: When talking to the priest, Serafina calls the neighborhood women hens who like water thrown on them! (Agy 84).

    Definition: The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics defines Carnival as a, recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted freedom (Rademacher 229).

    USING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINE WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE EXAMPLES ABOVE.

    Why are we using Joes quote? Which rule?Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?

  • Why write all that down?PRACTICEPRACTICEPRACTICE

    As writers,

    we must get into the habit of organizing and sorting information as we gather it. You are practicing how to use quotes, as well as how to introduce them into texts.

  • STRINGING ALONG QUOTESCREATES PROBLEMS: For example:The New World Encyclopedia says Rudolph is a reindeer(67). Dr. Schmoe agrees with the animal is in the reindeer classification(78). Some researchers believe that his nose was a result of extra neurons that grew out of control (Smith 12). Others say that the malformation is a result of drinking too much(Agy 78).

    WHERE IS THE WRITERS VOICE?

  • ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES NECESSARY?NO

    STRINGING ALONG QUOTES WEAKENS OUR WRITING

  • How do we choose which to keep and which to cut out?

  • GENERAL RULE OF THUMBUSE

    QUOTES SPARINGLY

  • Consider this example:Yellow text highlights quotes. Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. Forexample, in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,researchers believe that girls who try to practice some form ofexpression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hairstyles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challengetheir cultures notions of the ideal woman (Jones 14). I think that this studyis interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so selfconscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not havesuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview witha student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara states: High school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles Iwore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow (Smith) Iremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both thearticle and the interview

  • YIKES!!!!!THE WRITING HAS WAY TOO MANY QUOTES.

    IT WEAKENS THE TEXTIT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READWE WALK AWAY UNCLEAR

    WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?

  • Here is a revision of the previous slide:Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. Forexample, in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,researchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girlswill later challenge their cultures notions of the ideal (Jones 14). I think this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who areso self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not havesuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview witha student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara callsherself a shadow and saw her high school experience as hell (Smith) Iremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both thearticle and the interview

    Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules apply to the changes made to the first quote, and which of the quote rules apply to the second quote changes.

  • ACTIVITY Take the paper you are working on now, and highlight all of the places where you quote. Highlight from the beginning of the quote to the end of the quote. Do this for every quote in your paper.

  • Activity continued :

    1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies.

    REMEMBER!!!There are specific reasons why we quotewe should quote sparinglyless is best with quotes.

    2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes. a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page. b. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eye toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. c. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see the difference.

    3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.

  • Let's Practice Paraphrase

    Talking to the reader / Sharing the information

  • WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?A paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking to the audience about what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowed language or original toneonly important information is paraphrased. Paraphrase is used more often than quoting because it allows the reader to hear the writers voice. The writer is talking the research to his/her audience.

    Let's Review:1. Use only important information.2. Paraphrasing is better than quoting too much.3. We must use our own voice and words.

  • Things to consider about Paraphrasing:1. We are allowed to use key terms, such as authors name or topic. No quotation marks are necessary when we use these.

    If we borrow any necessary language, we must put it in quotations.

    We must box in the source by introducing it first and then citing the source at the end of the paraphrase.

    (PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)

  • USE THIS AS A MODEL:Does the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to use common terms without using quotes. For example, if you are paraphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the following common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etcIf you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must use quotations marks!You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example, look at the following paraphrase:

    In the book called Birds of the Northeast, Joe Schmoe calls the woodpecker the most beautiful bird in that region. He continues to say that nature gives us many examples of the fluid motion the woodpecker allows artists (97). 4. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE TONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH A SIMILAR WORD.

  • Let's look at the sample

    Here is a common quote from President Kennedy:

    And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.

    Here is an incorrect paraphrase:

    So, my countrymen: Dont ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans

  • Consider the reasons why the previous paraphrase is incorrect:ORIGINAL: And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.INCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: So, my countrymen: Dont ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans

    Did the writer use common terms?

    No. But thats ok.

    Did the writer borrow necessary language and use quotations correctly?

    No: The writer borrowed unnecessary language (ask, you, my)No: The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language. (ask, you, my)Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end?

    No. We dont know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends.4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words? YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITER STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.

  • Let's fix the previous example:ORIGINAL: And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.

    CORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedys speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demands they do not sit back and ask what [their] nation can do (Smith 19).

    Does it use common terms?

    Yes: Americans.no quotes necessary.

    Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?

    Yes: Ask what [their] nations can do.Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?

    Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with In John Kennedys speech and ends with (Smith19).

    Does it steal the tone or simply replace words?

    No: This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text.

  • MOST COMMON PROBLEMThe main problem is using the original source as a mirror.

    Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. Some writers have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their own language, then all is well. But, they are mistaken!

    When we paraphrase we are putting someone elses information in our own sentence patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be our own.

    We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our sources sentences while we keep their original sentence patterns, BUT WE ARE NOT.

    Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.

  • Consider another example:Incorrect paraphrase--plagiarismOriginal:Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask what you can do for your country.

    Incorrect Paraphrase:Dont ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to do for your country. Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same.

    Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second example only mimics the firstit does NOT paraphrase the first.

    Correct Paraphrase:John Kennedys introduction stresses the importance of citizens becoming civically engaged in their countrys affairs (67).

  • Copying sentence patternsACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE PATTERNSORIGINAL TEXT INCORRECT PARAPHRASEMany children are brought up in oraltraditions, rich in metaphor, imagery,and voice. These students bring richdescription and comparisontechniques to the academia. Someliteracy experts say these children arebehind in structure, analysis, andunderstanding. But a carefulconsideration of the ways thesestudents approach writing show theirdeep understanding of culture, socialideology, and politics eachstemming from rich storytellingfoundations(Agy)According to Agy, many young peopleare raised with storytellingbackgrounds, complete withcomparisons, icons, and sound. Thesewriters know how to help us see theircharacters. Some people say thesestudents dont know how to formparagraphs, make connections, orcomprehend. But these writers knowabout people, society, and thegovernment all come from their Oral tradition (Agy)

  • ACTIVITY LOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPER

    HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASE YOUR SOURCE.

    HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS INFORMATION COMES FROM.

    ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCE PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH.

    YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROM ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISING

  • ACTIVITY PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

    List four reasons why we would quote.Why should we quote sparingly?What does a summary do for our text?What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing?What is a sentence pattern, and why is it important to understand when paraphrasing?