summary quote paraphrase workshop

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HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: SUMMARY SUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA) (CAPTURING THE IDEA) QUOTE QUOTE (USING (USING NUGGETS NUGGETS OF TEXT) OF TEXT) PARAPHRASE PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE) (BORROWING LANGUAGE)

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Page 1: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:

SUMMARYSUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA)(CAPTURING THE IDEA)

QUOTEQUOTE (USING (USING NUGGETSNUGGETS OF TEXT) OF TEXT)

PARAPHRASEPARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)(BORROWING LANGUAGE)

Page 2: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOPHOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOPThis workshop is an introduction to how writers use This workshop is an introduction to how writers use

summary/quotes/paraphrases.summary/quotes/paraphrases.

Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you will need later on—so read purposefully.will need later on—so read purposefully.

Complete all the activities. Complete all the activities.

Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop targets Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.

Please ask your instructor if you have any questions. Please ask your instructor if you have any questions.

Also visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a great Also visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a great resource.resource.

Page 3: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN OUR EVERY DAY LIVESOUR EVERY DAY LIVES

Let's consider music-Let's consider music-- -

In many songs, writers will:In many songs, writers will:Reduce/nutshellReduce/nutshell what story/event is about: what story/event is about:

SummarySummary

Restate exactlyRestate exactly a cool group of words: a cool group of words: QuoteQuote

Rearrange/borrowRearrange/borrow language: language: ParaphraseParaphrase

Look at next slide for example:Look at next slide for example:

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EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE:RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEERRUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEER

http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=enhttp://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en

You know Dasher, and Dancer, andYou know Dasher, and Dancer, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, andPrancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, andDonner and BlitzenDonner and BlitzenBut do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of allBut do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all

Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it and if you ever saw it you would even say it glowsyou would even say it glows

All of the other reindeer All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him namesused to laugh and call him names Summary (nutshell 5 year event)Summary (nutshell 5 year event) they never let poor Rudolphthey never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games.join in any reindeer games.

Then one foggy Christmas eveThen one foggy Christmas eve Santa came to say:Santa came to say: “ “Rudolph with your nose so bright, Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa)quote (directly from Santa)won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”

Then all the reindeer loved him Then all the reindeer loved him as they shouted out with glee,as they shouted out with glee,

Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, you’ll go down in history!you’ll go down in history! Paraphrase (some words are original andParaphrase (some words are original and

some are borrowed from ‘fellas’)some are borrowed from ‘fellas’)

Page 5: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

Let's Practice SummaryLet's Practice Summary

What are the Main ideas here?What are the Main ideas here?

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SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE BIG PICTUREBIG PICTURE

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Many writers include a summary of their Many writers include a summary of their sources before adding a quote or parphrase.sources before adding a quote or parphrase. The author “nutshells ” the information:The author “nutshells ” the information:

– He has done his homework; he understands the ‘thing’ he has He has done his homework; he understands the ‘thing’ he has read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes. read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes. Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader, Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader, and he explains what the ‘thing’ is in a nutshell. Assume an and he explains what the ‘thing’ is in a nutshell. Assume an intelligent audience, but never assume your audience has intelligent audience, but never assume your audience has taken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-world taken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-world audience. In the introduction (background info), the writer audience. In the introduction (background info), the writer summarizes the “thing” he is writing about-- in the previous summarizes the “thing” he is writing about-- in the previous song example, he summarizes the story:song example, he summarizes the story:

– (Summary of 5 year event)(Summary of 5 year event)

Rudolph, the red nosed reindeerRudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it and if you ever saw it you would even say it glowsyou would even say it glows

All of the other reindeer All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him names of used to laugh and call him names of

they never let poor Rudolphthey never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer gamesjoin in any reindeer games..

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Summary helps the reader understand how the Summary helps the reader understand how the source fits into the research.source fits into the research.

Readers better understand the text.Readers better understand the text.

Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.

Readers better trust the writer as a researcher.Readers better trust the writer as a researcher.

A writer A writer pickspicks only the only the main pointsmain points for a summary. for a summary.

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He uses his own words to explain what the ‘thing’ He uses his own words to explain what the ‘thing’ is about is about before before he jumps into the meat of his he jumps into the meat of his

writing.writing.

When summarizing, the writer When summarizing, the writer explains the explains the main pointsmain points of a text in of a text in his/her own words. We use these so his/her own words. We use these so the reader the reader never asks the question:never asks the question:

““Does this writer know what Does this writer know what he/she is talking about?”he/she is talking about?”

Page 10: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

EXAMPLEEXAMPLEBelow is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the Below is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLA CLA JournalJournal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages ina nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about a nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about mainmainideas the article explores.ideas the article explores. The summary has only the main points of The summary has only the main points ofthe article, and it is written in the student’s own words:the article, and it is written in the student’s own words:

Diana Agy’s text, “Belinda, Another Eve” examines the use of BiblicalDiana Agy’s text, “Belinda, Another Eve” examines the use of Biblicalpassages in Alexander Pope’s passages in Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock. Rape of the Lock. She explains how theseShe explains how thesepassages help keep women in a lower position in society and how thesepassages help keep women in a lower position in society and how thesewomen contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset iswomen contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset isstill active today (Agy).still active today (Agy).

Notice the writer introduces the source and cites it at the end. All summaries are cited.

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Here is a Here is a beforebefore and and afterafter look: look:Example #1: Writing without summary of source:Example #1: Writing without summary of source:In a In a Nature TodayNature Today journal article, the author states “ten out of every journal article, the author states “ten out of every11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).

Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is concerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, and concerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, and how the quote relates to the topic.how the quote relates to the topic.

Example#2: Same piece with a summary:Example#2: Same piece with a summary:In a In a Nature TodayNature Today journal article, the author explores research journal article, the author explores researchconcerning tick fever. concerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks thatHer article explains the types of ticks thattransmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. Shetransmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. Shetalks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a hightalks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a highinfestation rate.infestation rate. The author states, “Ten out of every 11 reindeer in The author states, “Ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).

Summary allows the reader Summary allows the reader to trust the writerto trust the writer; it allows the ; it allows the text to better text to better developdevelop; and, equally importantly, ; and, equally importantly, it sets up theit sets up the quote. quote.

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Summary descriptionSummary description

Writers also Writers also use summaryuse summary to describe a to describe a person or an event for the reader person or an event for the reader beforebefore they continue on with their narrative. they continue on with their narrative. Summary description helps develop the Summary description helps develop the story, and it helps the reader better story, and it helps the reader better connect to the characters.connect to the characters.

With summary description,With summary description,

We move from barely seeing the characterWe move from barely seeing the character

toto a better understanding of who she isa better understanding of who she is..

Page 13: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

Here is a Here is a beforebefore and and afterafter look: look:Example #1: Writing without summary description:Example #1: Writing without summary description:

My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.from anorexia. Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.

Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:My sister came into the room and all eyes were on herMy sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. . Leisa was 21 years Leisa was 21 years old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition. competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition. She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as they scanned the room.they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.

Summary allows the reader Summary allows the reader to trust the writerto trust the writer; it allows the ; it allows the text to better text to better developdevelop; and, equally importantly, ; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.it helps us see the character.

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Some writers leave summary out of their text Some writers leave summary out of their text for a variety of reasons:for a variety of reasons:

1. They did not read the entire source.1. They did not read the entire source.2. They do not understand the entire source.2. They do not understand the entire source.3. They have learned to string along quotes—so 3. They have learned to string along quotes—so they only look for quotes they might use when reading.they only look for quotes they might use when reading.

When we first learn how to write, we might think we have to When we first learn how to write, we might think we have to use many quotes, or we might believe research is when use many quotes, or we might believe research is when we change a word here and there. we change a word here and there.

Summarizing helps prepare the audience.Summarizing helps prepare the audience.If you don’t summarize, your audience may not stay focused.If you don’t summarize, your audience may not stay focused.

Summary is something we use in everyday life.Summary is something we use in everyday life.

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When we don’t understand our sources, we When we don’t understand our sources, we don’t have confidence in our writing:don’t have confidence in our writing:

Confident Writer:Confident Writer:I understand my source—I’ll talk it to you.I understand my source—I’ll talk it to you.I understand how my source fits into my paper.I understand how my source fits into my paper.I have read and re-read my source; I know it.I have read and re-read my source; I know it.I can tell my reader what my source is about in my own wordsI can tell my reader what my source is about in my own wordsI can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.

Non-Confident Writer:Non-Confident Writer:I have only read my source once.I have only read my source once.I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.I think my source is good—but I don’t understand it.I think my source is good—but I don’t understand it.I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.I can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking atI can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at

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Let's Practice SummaryLet's Practice SummaryActivity # 1Activity # 1

Summarize the following inSummarize the following in two-three sentences eachtwo-three sentences each::

Summarize your favorite song. For example:Summarize your favorite song. For example:““Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song about Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song about the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually turned his disability into an asset, and his peers turned his disability into an asset, and his peers learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”).learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”).

Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example:Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example:Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the Empire’s faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator).

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Activity #2Activity #2Let's look at your paper:Let's look at your paper:

Take the paper you are working on now and add Take the paper you are working on now and add summary.summary.

If you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two main If you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two main characters. Do you use summary description with them? Can the characters. Do you use summary description with them? Can the reader see them and understand who they are because of your reader see them and understand who they are because of your summary? summary?

On your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and add On your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and add 2-4 sentences of summary description for each.2-4 sentences of summary description for each.

If you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure to If you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure to summarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use your summarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use your targeted information. Hold the reader’s hand and show that you are an targeted information. Hold the reader’s hand and show that you are an expert with that one source.expert with that one source.

On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2-2- 4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to 4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite cite it at the endit at the end..

Page 18: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

Let's Practice QuotingLet's Practice Quoting(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)

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Let's Revisit RudolphLet's Revisit RudolphSanta came to say:Santa came to say:““Rudolph with your nose so bright, Rudolph with your nose so bright, won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”

In the song, In the song, Rudolph the Red Nosed ReindeerRudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer, the writer , the writer quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?

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DETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTEDETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTEWhen we take notes from movies, films, books, or When we take notes from movies, films, books, or

the internet, we will gather quotes that seem the internet, we will gather quotes that seem important to us at that time.important to us at that time.

Sift through these. Sift through these.

You are looking for only those You are looking for only those nuggets nuggets that will that will drive home your main point.drive home your main point.

The next few activities will help us The next few activities will help us better understand when and when not to quotebetter understand when and when not to quote

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QUOTEQUOTE

WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?

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Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes:Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes:

1.1. When the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it will When the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it will help help develop a particulardevelop a particular point. point.

2.2. When using an important statistic that is When using an important statistic that is absolutely necessaryabsolutely necessary to make a to make a strong point.strong point.

3.3. When quoting When quoting necessarynecessary dialogue. dialogue.4.4. When quoting from When quoting from an authorityan authority —again, this quote must be —again, this quote must be absolutely absolutely

necessarynecessary in the development of the paper. in the development of the paper.5.5. When quoting a text that seems to When quoting a text that seems to create tension or conflictcreate tension or conflict with your with your

own research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they are own research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they are allowing the opposite side to speak directly.allowing the opposite side to speak directly.

6.6. There are other general rules; There are other general rules; ask your instructor if you have any ask your instructor if you have any questions.questions.

Let's look at the list:Let's look at the list:

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ACTIVITY # 4ACTIVITY # 4Copy the three examples below.Copy the three examples below.

Use quotation marks (“ ”)when using the Use quotation marks (“ ”)when using the exact wordingexact wording from another text: from another text:

InterviewInterview: Joe said, : Joe said, “JCC is a great college.”“JCC is a great college.”

Literature analysis: Literature analysis: When talking to the priest, Serafina calls the When talking to the priest, Serafina calls the neighborhood women neighborhood women “hens”“hens” who who “like water “like water thrown on them!” thrown on them!” (Agy 84). (Agy 84).

DefinitionDefinition: : The Encyclopedia of Religion and EthicsThe Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics defines Carnival as a, defines Carnival as a, “ “recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted freedom” freedom” (Rademacher 229).(Rademacher 229).

USING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINE USING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINE WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE EXAMPLES ABOVE.EXAMPLES ABOVE.

Why are we using Joe’s quote? Which rule?Why are we using Joe’s quote? Which rule?Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?

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Why write all that down?Why write all that down?PRACTICEPRACTICEPRACTICEPRACTICEPRACTICEPRACTICE

• As writers, As writers, we mustwe must get into the habitget into the habit of organizing of organizing

and sorting information and sorting information as we gather itas we gather it. . You are practicing how to use quotes, as You are practicing how to use quotes, as well as how to introduce them into texts.well as how to introduce them into texts.

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STRINGING ALONG QUOTESSTRINGING ALONG QUOTESCREATES PROBLEMS:CREATES PROBLEMS:

For example:For example: The New World Encyclopedia says “Rudolph is a The New World Encyclopedia says “Rudolph is a

reindeer”(67).reindeer”(67). Dr. Schmoe agrees with “the animal is in the Dr. Schmoe agrees with “the animal is in the reindeer classification”(78).reindeer classification”(78). Some researchers believe that Some researchers believe that his nose “was a result of extra neurons that grew out of his nose “was a result of extra neurons that grew out of control (Smith 12).control (Smith 12). Others say that the malformation is a Others say that the malformation is a result of “drinking too much”(Agy 78).result of “drinking too much”(Agy 78).

WHERE IS THE WRITER’S VOICE? WHERE IS THE WRITER’S VOICE?

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ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES NECESSARY?NECESSARY?

NONO STRINGING ALONG QUOTES STRINGING ALONG QUOTES

WEAKENS WEAKENS OUR WRITINGOUR WRITING

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How do we choose which to keep How do we choose which to keep and which to ‘cut out’?and which to ‘cut out’?

Page 28: Summary quote paraphrase workshop

GENERAL RULE OF THUMBGENERAL RULE OF THUMB

USE USE QUOTES QUOTES

SPARINGLYSPARINGLY

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Consider this example:Consider this example:YellowYellow text highlights quotes. text highlights quotes.

Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. ForIndividuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. Forexampleexample, “in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,, “in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,researchers believe that girls who try to practice some form ofresearchers believe that girls who try to practice some form ofexpression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hairexpression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hairstyles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challengestyles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challengetheir culture’s notions of the ideal woman their culture’s notions of the ideal woman (Jones 14). I think that this study(Jones 14). I think that this studyis interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so selfis interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so selfconscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isconscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not haveallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not havesuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview withsuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview witha student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara statesa student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara states: : ““High school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles IHigh school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles Iwore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow” wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow” (Smith) I(Smith) Iremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both theremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both thearticle and the interview…article and the interview…

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YIKES!!!!!YIKES!!!!!

THE WRITING HAS THE WRITING HAS WAY TOO MANYWAY TOO MANY QUOTES. QUOTES.

IT WEAKENS THE TEXTIT WEAKENS THE TEXTIT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READIT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READ

WE WALK AWAY UNCLEARWE WALK AWAY UNCLEAR

WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?

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Here is a revision of the previous slide:Here is a revision of the previous slide:

Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. ForIndividuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. Forexampleexample, , in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,researchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girlsresearchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girlswill laterwill later “challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal” “challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal” (Jones 14). I think (Jones 14). I think this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who arethis study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who areso self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isso self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not haveallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not havesuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview withsuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview witha student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara callsa student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara callsherself herself “a shadow”“a shadow” and saw her high school experience as and saw her high school experience as “hell”“hell” (Smith) I(Smith) Iremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both theremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both thearticle and the interview…article and the interview…

Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules apply to the apply to the changes made to the first quotechanges made to the first quote, and which of the quote rules , and which of the quote rules apply to the apply to the second quote changessecond quote changes..

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ACTIVITY ACTIVITY

Take the paper you are working on Take the paper you are working on now, and now, and highlighthighlight all of the places all of the places where you quote. where you quote.

HighlightHighlight from the beginning of the from the beginning of the quote to the end of the quote. quote to the end of the quote.

Do this for every quote in your Do this for every quote in your paper.paper.

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Activity continuedActivity continued : :

1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies.1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies.

REMEMBER!!!REMEMBER!!!There are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote sparinglyThere are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote sparingly

—less is best with quotes.—less is best with quotes.

2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes. 2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes. a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page. a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page. b. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eye b. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eye

toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. c. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see the c. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see the

difference.difference.

3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.

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Let's Practice ParaphraseLet's Practice Paraphrase

Talking to the reader / Sharing the Talking to the reader / Sharing the informationinformation

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WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?A paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking A paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking

to the audience about what the original writer has said in to the audience about what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowed language or original the text while using some borrowed language or original tone—only tone—only important informationimportant information is paraphrased. is paraphrased. Paraphrase is Paraphrase is used more often than quotingused more often than quoting because it because it allows the reader to hear the writer’s voice. The allows the reader to hear the writer’s voice. The writer is writer is talkingtalking the research to his/her audience. the research to his/her audience.

Let's Review:Let's Review:1. 1. Use Use onlyonly important information. important information.2. 2. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is betteris better than quoting too than quoting too

much.much.3. 3. We We must usemust use our own voice and words. our own voice and words.

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Things to consider about Things to consider about Paraphrasing:Paraphrasing:

1. 1. We are allowedWe are allowed to use key terms, such as to use key terms, such as author’s name or topic. No quotation marks are author’s name or topic. No quotation marks are necessary when we use these.necessary when we use these.

1.1. If we borrow any necessary languageIf we borrow any necessary language, , we we mustmust put it in quotationsput it in quotations..

1.1. We must box in the sourceWe must box in the source by introducing it by introducing it first and then citing the source at the end of first and then citing the source at the end of the paraphrase.the paraphrase.

(PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to (PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)paraphrasing)

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USE THIS AS A MODEL:USE THIS AS A MODEL:

1.1. Does the paraphrase use common terms? You are Does the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to use common terms without using allowed to use common terms without using quotes. For example, if you are paraphrasing a quotes. For example, if you are paraphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the following text about dentistry, you can use the following common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc…common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc…

2.2. If you borrow necessary language or key terms, If you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must use quotations marks!you must use quotations marks!

3.3. You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example, look at the following paraphrase:it. For example, look at the following paraphrase:In the book called In the book called Birds of the NortheastBirds of the Northeast, Joe , Joe Schmoe calls the woodpecker the “most beautiful” Schmoe calls the woodpecker the “most beautiful” bird in that region. He continues to say that bird in that region. He continues to say that nature gives us many examples of the “fluid nature gives us many examples of the “fluid motion” the woodpecker allows artists (97). motion” the woodpecker allows artists (97).

44. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY . MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE TONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD THE TONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH A SIMILAR WORD.WITH A SIMILAR WORD.

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Let's look at the sample Let's look at the sample

Here is a common quote from President Kennedy:Here is a common quote from President Kennedy:

““And so, my fellow Americans: And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”for your country.”

Here is an Here is an incorrect incorrect paraphrase:paraphrase:

““So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans”fellow Americans”

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Consider the reasons why Consider the reasons why the previous paraphrase is the previous paraphrase is

incorrect:incorrect:ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your

country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”INCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: “So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what INCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: “So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what

your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans”you can give back to your fellow Americans”

1.1. Did the writer use common terms?Did the writer use common terms?No. But that’s ok.No. But that’s ok.

1.1. Did the writer borrow Did the writer borrow necessarynecessary language and use quotations language and use quotations correctly?correctly?NoNo:: The writer borrowed unnecessary language The writer borrowed unnecessary language (ask, you, my)(ask, you, my)NoNo:: The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language. The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language. (ask, (ask, you, my)you, my)

1.1. Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end?Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end?NoNo.. We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends.source begins and ends.

4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words?4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words? YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM.

THE WRITER STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED THE WRITER STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.WORDS.

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Let's fix the previous Let's fix the previous example:example:

ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”

CORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedy’s speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their CORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedy’s speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demands they do not sit back and “ask what [their] nation can do” (Smith country as he boldly demands they do not sit back and “ask what [their] nation can do” (Smith 19). 19).

1.1. Does it use common terms?Does it use common terms?Yes: Americans.—no quotes necessary.Yes: Americans.—no quotes necessary.

1.1. Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?Yes: “Ask what [their] nations can do.”Yes: “Ask what [their] nations can do.”

1.1. Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with “In John Kennedy’s speech” and ends Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with “In John Kennedy’s speech” and ends with (Smith19).with (Smith19).

1.1. Does it steal the tone or simply replace words?Does it steal the tone or simply replace words? No: No: This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer

talking/paraphrasing the original text.talking/paraphrasing the original text.

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MOST COMMON MOST COMMON PROBLEMPROBLEM

The main problem is using the original source as a mirror. The main problem is using the original source as a mirror.

Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. Some writers have learned that as long as patterns and voice. Some writers have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their own language, then all is they replace the original text with their own language, then all is well. well. But, they are mistaken!But, they are mistaken!

• When we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s information When we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s information in our own sentence patterns. Not only must the wording in our own sentence patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be our be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be our own.own.

We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our source’s sentences while we keep their original sentence source’s sentences while we keep their original sentence patterns, patterns, BUTBUT WE ARE NOTWE ARE NOT. .

Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism. Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.

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Consider another Consider another example:example:

Incorrect paraphrase--plagiarismIncorrect paraphrase--plagiarismOriginal:Original:Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask

what you can do for your country.what you can do for your country.

Incorrect Paraphrase:Incorrect Paraphrase:Don’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what Don’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what

you are willing to do for your country.you are willing to do for your country.– Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same. Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same.

Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second example only example only

mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first.mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first.

Correct Paraphrase:Correct Paraphrase:John Kennedy’s introduction stresses the John Kennedy’s introduction stresses the

importance of citizens becoming civically importance of citizens becoming civically engaged in their country’s affairs (67).engaged in their country’s affairs (67).

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Copying sentence patternsCopying sentence patternsACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE ACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE

PATTERNSPATTERNS

ORIGINAL TEXTORIGINAL TEXT INCORRECT PARAPHRASE INCORRECT PARAPHRASEMany children are brought Many children are brought

up in up in oraloraltraditions,traditions, rich in rich in metaphor, metaphor,

imagery,imagery,and voice.and voice. These students These students

bring bring richrichdescription and comparisondescription and comparisontechniques to the academia. techniques to the academia.

SomeSomeliteracy experts sayliteracy experts say these these

children arechildren arebehind in behind in structure, analysis, structure, analysis,

andandunderstandingunderstanding. But a careful. But a carefulconsideration of the ways consideration of the ways

thesethesestudents approach writing students approach writing

show theirshow theirdeep understanding of deep understanding of

culture, socialculture, socialideology, and politics ideology, and politics — each— eachstemming from stemming from rich rich

storytellingstorytellingfoundations(Agy)foundations(Agy)

According to Agy, many According to Agy, many young peopleyoung people

are raised with are raised with storytellingstorytellingbackgrounds, complete withbackgrounds, complete withcomparisons, icons, and comparisons, icons, and

soundsound. These. Thesewriters know how to writers know how to help us help us

seesee their theircharacters. characters. Some people saySome people say

thesethesestudents don’t know how to students don’t know how to

formformparagraphs, make paragraphs, make

connections, orconnections, orcomprehend.comprehend. But these But these

writers knowwriters knowabout about people, society, and people, society, and

thethegovernmentgovernment —all come from —all come from

their their Oral traditionOral tradition (Agy) (Agy)

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ACTIVITY ACTIVITY LOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPERLOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPER

HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASE YOUR SOURCE.PARAPHRASE YOUR SOURCE.

HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS INFORMATION COMES FROM.INFORMATION COMES FROM.

ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCE PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE SENTENCE PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH.PARAGRAPH.

YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROM ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISINGYOU FROM ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISING

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ACTIVITY ACTIVITY PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1.1. List four reasons why we would quote.List four reasons why we would quote.2.2. Why should we quote sparingly?Why should we quote sparingly?3.3. What does a summary do for our text?What does a summary do for our text?4.4. What are three general rules to remember when What are three general rules to remember when

paraphrasing?paraphrasing?5.5. What is a “sentence pattern,” and why is it important to What is a “sentence pattern,” and why is it important to

understand when paraphrasing?understand when paraphrasing?