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  • Slide 1
  • HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: SUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA) QUOTE (USING NUGGETS OF TEXT) PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE) PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)
  • Slide 2
  • HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOP This workshop is an introduction to how writers use summary/quotes/paraphrases. Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you will need later onso read purposefully. Complete all 10 activities. Hand in all materials to your instructor. Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing. Please ask your instructor if you have any questions. Also visit the Center for Student Success for more help. It is a great resource.
  • Slide 3
  • WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN OUR EVERY DAY LIVES Let's consider music-- In many songs, writers will: Reduce/nutshell what story/event is about: Summary Restate exactly a cool group of words: Quote Rearrange/borrow language: Paraphrase Look at next slide for example:
  • Slide 4
  • EXAMPLE: RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEER http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en You know Dasher, and Dancer, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and Donner and Blitzen But do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it you would even say it glows All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him namesSummary (nutshell 5 year event) used to laugh and call him namesSummary (nutshell 5 year event) they never let poor Rudolph they never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games. join in any reindeer games. Then one foggy Christmas eve Santa came to say: Santa came to say: Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa) Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa) wont you guide my sleigh tonight? Then all the reindeer loved him as they shouted out with glee, Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, youll go down in history!Paraphrase (some words are original and some are borrowed from fellas) some are borrowed from fellas)
  • Slide 5
  • Let's Practice Summary What are the Main ideas here? What are the Main ideas here?
  • Slide 6
  • SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE BIG PICTURE
  • Slide 7
  • Many writers include a summary of their sources before adding a quote or parphrase. The author nutshells the information: He has done his homework; he understands the thing he has read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes. Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader, and he explains what the thing is in a nutshell. He summarizes the thing-- in the previous song example, he summarizes the story: (Summary of 5 year event) Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it and if you ever saw it you would even say it glows you would even say it glows All of the other reindeer All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him names of used to laugh and call him names of they never let poor Rudolph they never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games. join in any reindeer games.
  • Slide 8
  • Summary helps the reader understand how the source fits into the research. Readers better understand the text. Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic. Readers better trust the writer as a researcher. A writer picks only the main points for a summary.
  • Slide 9
  • He uses his own words to explain what the thing is about before he jumps into the meat of his writing. When summarizing, the writer explains the main points of a text in his/her own words. We use these so the reader never asks the question: Does this writer know what he/she is talking about?
  • Slide 10
  • EXAMPLE Below is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLA Journal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in a nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about main ideas the article explores. The summary has only the main points of the article, and it is written in the students own words: Diana Agys text, Belinda, Another Eve examines the use of Biblical passages in Alexander Popes Rape of the Lock. She explains how these passages help keep women in a lower position in society and how these women contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset is still active today (Agy). Notice the writer introduces the source and cites it at the end. All summaries are cited.
  • Slide 11
  • Here is a before and after look: Example #1: Writing without summary of source: In a Nature Today journal article, the author states ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year(57). Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is concerned about several things: writers confidence, sources content, and how the quote relates to the topic. Example#2: Same piece with a summary: In a Nature Today journal article, the author explores research concerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks that transmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. She talks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a high infestation rate. The author states, Ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year(57). Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it sets up the quote. Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it sets up the quote.
  • Slide 12
  • Summary description Writers also use summary to describe a person or an event for the reader before they continue on with their narrative. Summary description helps develop the story, and it helps the reader better connect to the characters. With summary description, We move from barely seeing the character to to a better understanding of who she is. a better understanding of who she is.
  • Slide 13
  • Here is a before and after look: Example #1: Writing without summary description: My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia. Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward. Example#2: Same piece with a summary description: My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. Leisa was 21 years old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition. She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia. Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character. Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.
  • Slide 14
  • Some writers leave summary out of their text for a variety of reasons: 1. They did not read the entire source. 2. They do not understand the entire source. 3. They have learned to string along quotesso they only look for quotes they might use when reading. they only look for quotes they might use when reading. When we first learn how to write, we might think we have to use many quotes, or we might believe research is when we change a word here and there. Summarizing helps prepare the audience. If you dont summarize, your audience may not stay focused. Summary is something we use in everyday life.
  • Slide 15
  • When we dont understand our sources, we dont have confidence in our writing: Confident Writer: I understand my sourceIll talk it to you. I understand how my source fits into my paper. I have read and re-read my source; I know it. I can tell my reader what my source is about in my own words I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking. Non-Confident Writer: I have only read my source once. I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper. I think my source is goodbut I dont understand it. I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page. I can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at
  • Slide 16
  • Let's Practice Summary Activity # 1 Summarize the following in two-three sentences each: Summarize your favorite song. For example: Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer is a song about the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually turned his disability into an asset, and his peers learned how to appreciate diversity (Rudolph). Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example: Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the Empires faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator).
  • Slide 17
  • Activity #2 Let's look at your paper: Take the paper you are working on now and add summary. If you are working on a

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