HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: SUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA) QUOTE (USING NUGGETS OF TEXT) PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE) PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)

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  • Slide 1
  • HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: SUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA) QUOTE (USING NUGGETS OF TEXT) PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE) PARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)
  • Slide 2
  • HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOP This workshop is an introduction to how writers use summary/quotes/paraphrases. Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you will need later onso read purposefully. Complete all 10 activities. Hand in all materials to your instructor. Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing. Please ask your instructor if you have any questions. Also visit the Center for Student Success for more help. It is a great resource.
  • Slide 3
  • WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN OUR EVERY DAY LIVES Let's consider music-- In many songs, writers will: Reduce/nutshell what story/event is about: Summary Restate exactly a cool group of words: Quote Rearrange/borrow language: Paraphrase Look at next slide for example:
  • Slide 4
  • EXAMPLE: RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEER http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en You know Dasher, and Dancer, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and Donner and Blitzen But do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it you would even say it glows All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him namesSummary (nutshell 5 year event) used to laugh and call him namesSummary (nutshell 5 year event) they never let poor Rudolph they never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games. join in any reindeer games. Then one foggy Christmas eve Santa came to say: Santa came to say: Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa) Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa) wont you guide my sleigh tonight? Then all the reindeer loved him as they shouted out with glee, Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, youll go down in history!Paraphrase (some words are original and some are borrowed from fellas) some are borrowed from fellas)
  • Slide 5
  • Let's Practice Summary What are the Main ideas here? What are the Main ideas here?
  • Slide 6
  • SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE BIG PICTURE
  • Slide 7
  • Many writers include a summary of their sources before adding a quote or parphrase. The author nutshells the information: He has done his homework; he understands the thing he has read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes. Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader, and he explains what the thing is in a nutshell. He summarizes the thing-- in the previous song example, he summarizes the story: (Summary of 5 year event) Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny nose Had a very shiny nose and if you ever saw it and if you ever saw it you would even say it glows you would even say it glows All of the other reindeer All of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him names of used to laugh and call him names of they never let poor Rudolph they never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games. join in any reindeer games.
  • Slide 8
  • Summary helps the reader understand how the source fits into the research. Readers better understand the text. Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic. Readers better trust the writer as a researcher. A writer picks only the main points for a summary.
  • Slide 9
  • He uses his own words to explain what the thing is about before he jumps into the meat of his writing. When summarizing, the writer explains the main points of a text in his/her own words. We use these so the reader never asks the question: Does this writer know what he/she is talking about?
  • Slide 10
  • EXAMPLE Below is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLA Journal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in a nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about main ideas the article explores. The summary has only the main points of the article, and it is written in the students own words: Diana Agys text, Belinda, Another Eve examines the use of Biblical passages in Alexander Popes Rape of the Lock. She explains how these passages help keep women in a lower position in society and how these women contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset is still active today (Agy). Notice the writer introduces the source and cites it at the end. All summaries are cited.
  • Slide 11
  • Here is a before and after look: Example #1: Writing without summary of source: In a Nature Today journal article, the author states ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year(57). Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is concerned about several things: writers confidence, sources content, and how the quote relates to the topic. Example#2: Same piece with a summary: In a Nature Today journal article, the author explores research concerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks that transmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. She talks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a high infestation rate. The author states, Ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year(57). Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it sets up the quote. Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it sets up the quote.
  • Slide 12
  • Summary description Writers also use summary to describe a person or an event for the reader before they continue on with their narrative. Summary description helps develop the story, and it helps the reader better connect to the characters. With summary description, We move from barely seeing the character to to a better understanding of who she is. a better understanding of who she is.
  • Slide 13
  • Here is a before and after look: Example #1: Writing without summary description: My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia. Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward. Example#2: Same piece with a summary description: My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. Leisa was 21 years old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition. She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia. Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character. Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better develop; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.
  • Slide 14
  • Some writers leave summary out of their text for a variety of reasons: 1. They did not read the entire source. 2. They do not understand the entire source. 3. They have learned to string along quotesso they only look for quotes they might use when reading. they only look for quotes they might use when reading. When we first learn how to write, we might think we have to use many quotes, or we might believe research is when we change a word here and there. Summarizing helps prepare the audience. If you dont summarize, your audience may not stay focused. Summary is something we use in everyday life.
  • Slide 15
  • When we dont understand our sources, we dont have confidence in our writing: Confident Writer: I understand my sourceIll talk it to you. I understand how my source fits into my paper. I have read and re-read my source; I know it. I can tell my reader what my source is about in my own words I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking. Non-Confident Writer: I have only read my source once. I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper. I think my source is goodbut I dont understand it. I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page. I can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at
  • Slide 16
  • Let's Practice Summary Activity # 1 Summarize the following in two-three sentences each: Summarize your favorite song. For example: Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer is a song about the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually turned his disability into an asset, and his peers learned how to appreciate diversity (Rudolph). Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example: Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the Empires faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator).
  • Slide 17
  • Activity #2 Let's look at your paper: Take the paper you are working on now and add summary. If you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two main characters. Do you use summary description with them? Can the reader see them and understand who they are because of your summary? On your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and add 2-4 sentences of summary description for each. If you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure to summarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use your targeted information. Hold the readers hand and show that you are an expert with that one source. On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2- 4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite it at the end.
  • Slide 18
  • Let's Practice Quoting (CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)
  • Slide 19
  • Let's Revisit Rudolph Santa came to say: Rudolph with your nose so bright, wont you guide my sleigh tonight? In the song, Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer, the writer quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?
  • Slide 20
  • DETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTE When we take notes from movies, films, books, or the internet, we will gather quotes that seem important to us at that time. Sift through these. You are looking for only those nuggets that will drive home your main point. The next few activities will help us The next few activities will help us better understand when and when not to quote better understand when and when not to quote
  • Slide 21
  • QUOTE WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?
  • Slide 22
  • Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes: 1.When the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it will help develop a particular point. 2.When using an important statistic that is absolutely necessary to make a strong point. 3.When quoting necessary dialogue. 4.When quoting from an authority again, this quote must be absolutely necessary in the development of the paper. 5.When quoting a text that seems to create tension or conflict with your own research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they are allowing the opposite side to speak directly. 6.There are other general rules; ask your instructor if you have any questions. ACTIVITY #3: PRINT THIS SLIDE (#22) Go back to the Rudolph example. Which of the above rules apply to Santas quote. Write the answer on your worksheet paper. Go back to the Rudolph example. Which of the above rules apply to Santas quote. Write the answer on your worksheet paper. Let's look at the list: Let's look at the list:
  • Slide 23
  • ACTIVITY # 4 Copy the three examples below. Use quotation marks ( )when using the exact wording from another text: Interview: Joe said, JCC is a great college. Literature analysis: When talking to the priest, Serafina calls the neighborhood women hens who like water neighborhood women hens who like water thrown on them! (Agy 84). thrown on them! (Agy 84). Definition: The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics defines Carnival as a, recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted freedom (Rademacher 229). freedom (Rademacher 229). USING YOUR PRINTED QUOTE LIST FROM SLIDE #22, DETERMINE WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE EXAMPLES ABOVE. Why are we using Joes quote? Which rule? Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule? Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?
  • Slide 24
  • Why write all that down? PRACTICE As writers,As writers, we must get into the habit of organizing and sorting information as we gather it. You are practicing how to use quotes, as well as how to introduce them into texts. we must get into the habit of organizing and sorting information as we gather it. You are practicing how to use quotes, as well as how to introduce them into texts.
  • Slide 25
  • STRINGING ALONG QUOTES CREATES PROBLEMS: For example: The New World Encyclopedia says Rudolph is a reindeer(67). Dr. Schmoe agrees with the animal is in the reindeer classification(78). Some researchers believe that his nose was a result of extra neurons that grew out of control (Smith 12). Others say that the malformation is a result of drinking too much(Agy 78). WHERE IS THE WRITERS VOICE?
  • Slide 26
  • ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES NECESSARY? NO STRINGING ALONG QUOTES STRINGING ALONG QUOTES WEAKENS OUR WRITING
  • Slide 27
  • How do we choose which to keep and which to cut out?
  • Slide 28
  • GENERAL RULE OF THUMB USE QUOTESSPARINGLY
  • Slide 29
  • Consider this example: Yellow text highlights quotes. Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For example, in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska, researchers believe that girls who try to practice some form of expression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hair styles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challenge their cultures notions of the ideal woman (Jones 14). I think that this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so self conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with a student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara states: High school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles I wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow (Smith) I remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the article and the interview
  • Slide 30
  • YIKES!!!!! THE WRITING HAS WAY TOO MANY QUOTES. IT WEAKENS THE TEXT IT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READ WE WALK AWAY UNCLEAR WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?
  • Slide 31
  • Here is a revision of the previous slide: Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For example, in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska, researchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girls will later challenge their cultures notions of the ideal (Jones 14). I think this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with a student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara calls herself a shadow and saw her high school experience as hell (Smith) I remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the article and the interview Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules apply to the changes made to the first quote, and which of the quote rules apply to the second quote changes.
  • Slide 32
  • ACTIVITY # 5 Take the paper you are working on now, and highlight all of the places where you quote. Highlight from the beginning of the quote to the end of the quote. Do this for every quote in your paper.
  • Slide 33
  • Activity # 5 continued : 1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies. REMEMBER!!! There are specific reasons why we quotewe should quote sparinglyless is best with quotes. 2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes. a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page. b. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eye toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. c. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see the difference. difference. 3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.
  • Slide 34
  • Let's Practice Paraphrase Talking to the reader / Sharing the information Talking to the reader / Sharing the information
  • Slide 35
  • WHAT IS PARAPHRASE? A paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking to the audience about what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowed language or original toneonly important information is paraphrased. Paraphrase is used more often than quoting because it allows the reader to hear the writers voice. The writer is talking the research to his/her audience. Let's Review: 1. Use only important information. 2. Paraphrasing is better than quoting too much. 3. We must use our own voice and words.
  • Slide 36
  • Things to consider about Paraphrasing: 1. We are allowed to use key terms, such as authors name or topic. No quotation marks are necessary when we use these. 2.If we borrow any necessary language, we must put it in quotations. 3.We must box in the source by introducing it first and then citing the source at the end of the paraphrase. (PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)
  • Slide 37
  • USE THIS AS A MODEL: 1.Does the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to use common terms without using quotes. For example, if you are paraphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the following common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc 2.If you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must use quotations marks! 3.You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example, look at the following paraphrase: In the book called Birds of the Northeast, Joe Schmoe calls the woodpecker the most beautiful bird in that region. He continues to say that nature gives us many examples of the fluid motion the woodpecker allows artists (97). 4. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE TONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH A SIMILAR WORD.
  • Slide 38
  • Let's look at the sample Here is a common quote from President Kennedy: And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country. Here is an incorrect paraphrase: So, my countrymen: Dont ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans
  • Slide 39
  • Consider the reasons why the previous paraphrase is incorrect: ORIGINAL: And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country. INCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: So, my countrymen: Dont ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans 1.Did the writer use common terms? No. But thats ok. 2.Did the writer borrow necessary language and use quotations correctly? No: The writer borrowed unnecessary language (ask, you, my) No: The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language. (ask, you, my) 3.Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end? No. We dont know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends. 4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words? YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITER STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS. YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITER STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.
  • Slide 40
  • Let's fix the previous example: ORIGINAL: And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country. CORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedys speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demands they do not sit back and ask what [their] nation can do (Smith 19). 1.Does it use common terms? Yes: Americans.no quotes necessary. 2.Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations? Yes: Ask what [their] nations can do. 3.Does it introduce and cite the source correctly? Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with In John Kennedys speech and ends with (Smith19). 4.Does it steal the tone or simply replace words? No: This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text. No: This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text.
  • Slide 41
  • MOST COMMON PROBLEM The main problem is using the original source as a mirror. Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. Some writers have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their own language, then all is well. But, they are mistaken! When we paraphrase we are putting someone elses information in our own sentence patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be our own.When we paraphrase we are putting someone elses information in our own sentence patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be our own. We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our sources sentences while we keep their original sentence patterns, BUT WE ARE NOT. Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism. Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.
  • Slide 42
  • Consider another example: Incorrect paraphrase--plagiarism Original: Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask what you can do for your country. Incorrect Paraphrase: Dont ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to do for your country. Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same. Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second example only mimics the firstit does NOT paraphrase the first. mimics the firstit does NOT paraphrase the first. Correct Paraphrase: John Kennedys introduction stresses the importance of citizens becoming civically engaged in their countrys affairs (67).
  • Slide 43
  • Copying sentence patterns ACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE PATTERNS ORIGINAL TEXT INCORRECT PARAPHRASE Many children are brought up in oral traditions, rich in metaphor, imagery, and voice. These students bring rich description and comparison techniques to the academia. Some literacy experts say these children are behind in structure, analysis, and understanding. But a careful consideration of the ways these students approach writing show their deep understanding of culture, social ideology, and politics each stemming from rich storytelling foundations(Agy) According to Agy, many young people are raised with storytelling backgrounds, complete with comparisons, icons, and sound. These writers know how to help us see their characters. Some people say these students dont know how to form paragraphs, make connections, or comprehend. But these writers know about people, society, and the government all come from their Oral tradition (Agy)
  • Slide 44
  • ACTIVITY #8 LOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPER HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASE YOUR SOURCE. HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS INFORMATION COMES FROM. ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCE PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH. YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROM ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISING
  • Slide 45
  • ACTIVITY #9 PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1.List four reasons why we would quote. 2.Why should we quote sparingly? 3.What does a summary do for our text? 4.What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing? 5.What is a sentence pattern, and why is it important to understand when paraphrasing?
  • Slide 46
  • ACTIVITY #10 WRITE A ONE PAGE REFLECTION OF WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED IN THIS WORKSHOP. INCLUDE DISCUSSION ABOUT WHAT REVISIONS YOU HAVE MADE TO YOUR PAPER. EXPLAIN TWO IDEAS YOU WILL USE WHEN CONSIDERING QUOTING, PARAPHRASING,OR SUMMARIZING IN FUTURE WRITING.
  • Slide 47
  • YEAH!!! YOURE DONE! HAND IN ALL SLIDES THE WORKSHOP ASKED YOU TO PRINT. HAND IN ALL PAGES OF NOTES ETC YOU DID AS WORKSHOP MATERIALS. HAND IN ROUGH DRAFTS AND REVISED AREAS FROM THE PAPERS YOU ARE WORKING ON NOW.
  • Slide 48
  • IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESITONS OR COMMENTS, PLEASE CONTACT Diana Agy (agydianam@jccmi.edu) agydianam@jccmi.edu Geri Jacobs (jacobsgeraldinei@jccmi.edu) jacobsgeraldinei@jccmi.edu