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  • Paraphrase and Summary

  • Summary

    Paraphrase

    Quote

    Source material

  • Find, Assemble, and

    Evaluate

    Acknowledge and Incorporate Cite and

    Document

    Source Toolkit

  • From blogs.fit.edu

  • In an instructional

    setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone elses language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.

    Print or on-line texts, manuscripts, and the work of other student writers are included in the definition Council of Writing Program

    Administrators

  • Yours

    Your own experiences

    Your own lab results or observations

    Your own artwork

    Not Yours

    Words taken from any medium

    Interviews

    Print or electronic media

    From the Purdue OWL, Is it plagiarism yet

  • At least 5 sources

    (Historical Dates and Facts)

    Quantity Known by your peer group

    (Established principles in a field)

    Ubiquity

    "Helsinki is the capital of Finland."

    "In the 19th century Helsinki was considered the leading example of Empire-style architecture in all of Northern Europe."

    The population of Finland in July 1999 was 4,992,311."

    The population of Finland has been about 5 million for the past several decades."

  • Cheating

    Non-attribution of sources

    Patchwriting Howard, Rebecca Moore. "Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty." College English 57.7 (Nov. 1995): 708-36. Print. qtd. at the Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/929/15/

    Types of Plagiarism

  • Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. On each shift a nurse assumes the role of resource nurse. This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. Resource nurses also take a patient assignment. (Chase, 1995, p. 156

    Critical care nurses have a hierarchy

    of roles. The nurse manager hires

    and fires nurses. S/he does not

    directly care for patients but does

    follow unusual or long-term cases.

    On each shift a resource nurse

    attends to the functioning of the

    unit as a whole, such as making sure

    beds are available in the operating

    room , and also has a patient

    assignment.

    Sample ParaphrasesUnsuccessful and Successful, The Writing Center, UW-Madison, http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Acknowledging_Sources.pdf

    Original Source Plagiarism

  • "copying from a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in one-for-one synonym-substitutes."

    Howard, R.M. (1993) A plagiarism pentimento. Journal of Teaching Writing, 11(3), pp. 233-246. Print.

  • Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. On each shift a nurse assumes the role of resource nurse. This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. Resource nurses also take a patient assignment. (Chase, 1995, p. 156

    Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. The

    nurse manager hires and fires nurses. S/he does not

    directly care for patients but does follow unusual or

    long-term cases. On each shift a resource nurse

    attends to the functioning of the unit as a whole,

    such as making sure beds are available in the

    operating room , and also has a patient assignment.

    Sample ParaphrasesUnsuccessful and Successful, The Writing Center, UW-Madison, http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Acknowledging_Sources.pdf

    Original Source Plagiarism

    Chase (1995) described how nurses in a critical care unit function in a hierarchy that places designated experts at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.

    Patchwriting

  • Original Source:

    "Hobbes's opposition to democracy was

    grounded in his skepticism concerning the

    human capacity for knowledge and effective

    action, in his fear of power untempered by

    knowledge and prudence, and in his abiding

    concern for individuality and the self-

    enactment that begets it. [Source: Richard E.

    Flathman Thomas Hobbes: Skepticism, Individuality and

    Chastened Politics Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications,

    1993, 161.]

    Student Paper:

    Hobbes opposed democracy because

    he was skeptical about the human

    capacity for knowledge and effective

    action. He believed that the average

    person did not possess the

    knowledge and prudence required

    for political activity (Flathman 161).

    From http://library.lclark.edu/reference/plagiarism/patchwriting.htm

  • Is this paraphrase acceptable? Original passage: Tom Squitieri, a 16-year veteran of USA Today, resigned from the newspaper yesterday after his editors said he lifted quotations from other newspapers without attribution (Seelye). Paraphrased passage: Squitieri, who worked at USA Today for 16 years, left the paper after he was accused of stealing quotes from other publications without crediting the source (Seelye).

    1. Yes

    2. No

    3. I dont know

  • Is this paraphrase acceptable? Original passage: Tom Squitieri, a 16-year veteran of USA Today, resigned from the newspaper yesterday after his editors said he lifted quotations from other newspapers without attribution (Seelye). Paraphrased passage: Journalist Tom Squitieri left USA Today amid plagiarism accusations.

    1. Yes

    2. No

    3. I dont know

  • Is this paraphrase acceptable? Original passage: Tom Squitieri, a 16-year veteran of USA Today, resigned from the newspaper yesterday after his editors said he lifted quotations from other newspapers without attribution (Seelye). Paraphrased passage: Amid plagiarism accusations, journalist Tom Squitieri left USA Today (Seelye).

    1. Yes

    2. No

    3. I dont know

  • Paraphrasing Process

    Read the relevant material several times and locate the individual statements or major ideas in the original, making sure you understand the source passage

    Take notes carefully & outline the passage, focusing on the key ideas.

    When you understand the passage clearly, look away from it and draft a paraphrase from your notes and outline. Use your own words.

    Compare the paraphrase with the original to assure that the rewording is sufficient and the meaning has been preserved--be careful to not distort the meaning of the passage.

    Check that you have changed the order of major ideas, maintaining logical connections among them.

    Check that you have substituted synonyms for words in the original, making sure the language in your paraphrase is appropriate for your audience and that the synonyms carry the same meaning as the original words.

    Compare the paraphrase with the original to assure that the rewording is sufficient and the meaning has been preserved--be careful to not distort the meaning of the passage.

    Weave the paraphrase into your paper in accordance with your rhetorical purpose.

    Document the paraphrase.

  • Sample paraphrase

    At the end of World War 2, the Third Reich was defeated by the combined forces of Britain, North America and other countries.

    The Allies triumphed over the German army in 1945.

    Sample from http://www.une.edu.au/elc/plagiarism/paraphrase.htm

  • Practice

    While it is true that many people simply can't afford to pay more for food, either in money or time or both, many more of us can. After all, just in the last decade or two we've somehow found the time in the day to spend several hours on the internet and the money in the budget not only to pay for broadband service, but to cover a second phone bill and a new monthly bill for television, formerly free. For the majority of Americans, spending more for better food is less a matter of ability than priority.

    from Michael Pollan, In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto, p. 187

    Paraphrase:

  • Signal Phrase

    Author(s)

    Credentials

    Verb (argue, explain, suggest)

    Quoted. paraphrased, or summarized material

    quotation marks or blocks for direct quotes,

    comma to signal where a summary or paraphrase begins Citation

    Use in-text citation to signal that your source material has ended

    Connection

    Emphasize or highlight a key point

    Comment on the material

    Connect the material to your claims

    Re-state or clarify the material

    Framing

    From Writing Today, p. 497

  • As Malcolm Gladwell reminds us, many American schools have eliminated recess in favor of more math and language studies, favoring explicit learning over collateral learning (Brain 36). This approach is problematic, because it takes away childrens opportunities to interact socially and problem-solve, which are critical skills in todays world.

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