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Paraphrase and Summary

Summary

Paraphrase

Quote

Source material

Find, Assemble, and

Evaluate

Acknowledge and Incorporate Cite and

Document

Source Toolkit

From blogs.fit.edu

“In an instructional

setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.”

Print or on-line texts, manuscripts, and the work of other student writers are included in the definition • Council of Writing Program

Administrators

Yours

Your own experiences

Your own lab results or observations

Your own artwork

Not Yours

Words taken from any medium

Interviews

Print or electronic media

From the Purdue OWL, “Is it plagiarism yet”

At least 5 sources

(Historical Dates and Facts)

Quantity Known by your peer group

(Established principles in a field)

Ubiquity

"Helsinki is the capital of Finland."

"In the 19th century Helsinki was considered the leading example of Empire-style architecture in all of Northern Europe."

“The population of Finland in July 1999 was 4,992,311."

“The population of Finland has been about 5 million for the past several decades."

Cheating

Non-attribution of sources

Patchwriting Howard, Rebecca Moore. "Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty." College English 57.7 (Nov. 1995): 708-36. Print. qtd. at the Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/929/15/

Types of Plagiarism

Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. On each shift a nurse assumes the role of resource nurse. This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. Resource nurses also take a patient assignment. (Chase, 1995, p. 156

Critical care nurses have a hierarchy

of roles. The nurse manager hires

and fires nurses. S/he does not

directly care for patients but does

follow unusual or long-term cases.

On each shift a resource nurse

attends to the functioning of the

unit as a whole, such as making sure

beds are available in the operating

room , and also has a patient

assignment.

“Sample Paraphrases–Unsuccessful and Successful,” The Writing Center, UW-Madison, http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Acknowledging_Sources.pdf

Original Source Plagiarism

"copying from a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in one-for-one synonym-substitutes."

Howard, R.M. (1993) A plagiarism pentimento. Journal of Teaching Writing, 11(3), pp. 233-246. Print.

Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. On each shift a nurse assumes the role of resource nurse. This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. Resource nurses also take a patient assignment. (Chase, 1995, p. 156

Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. The

nurse manager hires and fires nurses. S/he does not

directly care for patients but does follow unusual or

long-term cases. On each shift a resource nurse

attends to the functioning of the unit as a whole,

such as making sure beds are available in the

operating room , and also has a patient assignment.

“Sample Paraphrases–Unsuccessful and Successful,” The Writing Center, UW-Madison, http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Acknowledging_Sources.pdf

Original Source Plagiarism

Chase (1995) described how nurses in a critical care unit function in a hierarchy that places designated experts at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.

Patchwriting

Original Source:

"Hobbes's opposition to democracy was

grounded in his skepticism concerning the

human capacity for knowledge and effective

action, in his fear of power untempered by

knowledge and prudence, and in his abiding

concern for individuality and the self-

enactment that begets it.” [Source: Richard E.

Flathman Thomas Hobbes: Skepticism, Individuality and

Chastened Politics Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications,

1993, 161.]

Student Paper:

Hobbes opposed democracy because

he was skeptical about the human

capacity for knowledge and effective

action. He believed that the average

person did not possess the

knowledge and prudence required

for political activity (Flathman 161).

From http://library.lclark.edu/reference/plagiarism/patchwriting.htm

Is this paraphrase acceptable? Original passage: “Tom Squitieri, a 16-year veteran of USA Today, resigned from the newspaper yesterday after his editors said he lifted quotations from other newspapers without attribution” (Seelye). Paraphrased passage: Squitieri, who worked at USA Today for 16 years, left the paper after he was accused of stealing quotes from other publications without crediting the source (Seelye).

1. Yes

2. No

3. I don’t know

Is this paraphrase acceptable? Original passage: “Tom Squitieri, a 16-year veteran of USA Today, resigned from the newspaper yesterday after his editors said he lifted quotations from other newspapers without attribution” (Seelye). Paraphrased passage: Journalist Tom Squitieri left USA Today amid plagiarism accusations.

1. Yes

2. No

3. I don’t know

Is this paraphrase acceptable? Original passage: “Tom Squitieri, a 16-year veteran of USA Today, resigned from the newspaper yesterday after his editors said he lifted quotations from other newspapers without attribution” (Seelye). Paraphrased passage: Amid plagiarism accusations, journalist Tom Squitieri left USA Today (Seelye).

1. Yes

2. No

3. I don’t know

Paraphrasing Process

• Read the relevant material several times and locate the individual statements or major ideas in the original, making sure you understand the source passage

• Take notes carefully & outline the passage, focusing on the key ideas.

• When you understand the passage clearly, look away from it and draft a paraphrase from your notes and outline. Use your “own words.”

• Compare the paraphrase with the original to assure that the rewording is sufficient and the meaning has been preserved--be careful to not distort the meaning of the passage.

• Check that you have changed the order of major ideas, maintaining logical connections among them.

• Check that you have substituted synonyms for words in the original, making sure the language in your paraphrase is appropriate for your audience and that the synonyms carry the same meaning as the original words.

• Compare the paraphrase with the original to assure that the rewording is sufficient and the meaning has been preserved--be careful to not distort the meaning of the passage.

• Weave the paraphrase into your paper in accordance with your rhetorical purpose.

• Document the paraphrase.

Sample paraphrase

• At the end of World War 2, the Third Reich was defeated by the combined forces of Britain, North America and other countries.

• The Allies triumphed over the German army in 1945.

Sample from http://www.une.edu.au/elc/plagiarism/paraphrase.htm

Practice

“While it is true that many people simply can't afford to pay more for food, either in money or time or both, many more of us can. After all, just in the last decade or two we've somehow found the time in the day to spend several hours on the internet and the money in the budget not only to pay for broadband service, but to cover a second phone bill and a new monthly bill for television, formerly free. For the majority of Americans, spending more for better food is less a matter of ability than priority.”

from Michael Pollan, In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto, p. 187

• Paraphrase:

Signal Phrase

• Author(s)

• Credentials

• Verb (argue, explain, suggest)

Quoted. paraphrased, or summarized material

• quotation marks or blocks for direct quotes,

• comma to signal where a summary or paraphrase begins Citation

• Use in-text citation to signal that your source material has ended

Connection

• Emphasize or highlight a key point

• Comment on the material

• Connect the material to your claims

• Re-state or clarify the material

Framing

From Writing Today, p. 497

• As Malcolm Gladwell reminds us, many American schools have eliminated recess in favor of more math and language studies, favoring “explicit” learning over “collateral” learning (“Brain” 36). This approach is problematic, because it takes away children’s opportunities to interact socially and problem-solve, which are critical skills in today’s world.

Signal phrase

Borrowed material

Citation

Connection

From Writing Today, p. 498

• Speculating about why we so firmly believe that homework is critical to academic success, Gladwell suggests, “Perhaps because we have so little faith in the value the things that children would otherwise be doing in the time” (36). In other words, Gladwell is arguing that we are so fearful of letting children play that we fill up their time with activities like homework that show little benefit.

Signal phrase

Borrowed material

Citation

Connection

From Writing Today, p. 498

The Difference Between Summary and Paraphrase

Keys to Summary

• Complete objectivity (the summary should not include any of your own opinions about the text)

• Brevity (one-quarter the length of the original)

• The author, title, and context of the source

• A re-statement of the source’s thesis.

• Key supporting points in the source.

• Proper paraphrasing, quoting, and documenting of the source.

Sample Passage Height connotes status in many parts of the world. Executive offices are usually on the top floors; the underlings work below. Even being tall can help a person succeed. Studies have shown that employers are more willing to hire men over 6 feet tall than shorter men with the same credentials. Studies of real-world executives and graduates have shown that taller men make more money. In one study, every extra inch of height brought in an extra $1,300 a year. But being too big can be a disadvantage. A tall, brawny football player complained that people found him intimidating off the field and assumed he "had the brains of a Twinkie.“

From Locker, K. O. (2003). Business and administrative communication(6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. (p.301)

1. Identify the main idea 2. Identify the key

supporting points 3. Cut most examples 4. Apply paraphrasing

strategies – Re-order ideas – Change key words

Example from http://www.uhv.edu/ac/style/pdf/summarize.pdf

Sample Passage Height connotes status in many parts of the world. Executive offices are usually on the top floors; the underlings work below. Even being tall can help a person succeed. Studies have shown that employers are more willing to hire men over 6 feet tall than shorter men with the same credentials. Studies of real-world executives and graduates have shown that taller men make more money. In one study, every extra inch of height brought in an extra $1,300 a year. But being too big can be a disadvantage. A tall, brawny football player complained that people found him intimidating off the field and assumed he "had the brains of a Twinkie.“

From Locker, K. O. (2003). Business and administrative communication(6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. (p.301)

According to Locker, while height is sometimes associated with lack of intelligence, tall people have an easier time gaining employment and earn more money (301). Further, the higher floors of the office building are occupied by those in top positions. Thus, he notes, “height connotes status” globally (Locker 301).

Example from http://www.uhv.edu/ac/style/pdf/summarize.pdf

Marginal Notes

Double-entry logs

The good to good summary is active note-taking!

Argument: You should use sources as reasons and evidence to support your own argument rather than taking another writer’s thesis and line of argument.

Sentences: You should synthesize and integrate source information into your own sentences, rather than slavishly parroting another writer’s syntax and

paragraph development.

Citation: You should document all sources of borrowed information, also indicating the extent to

which you relied on particular sources.

http://campusnet.sebts.edu/moodle/file.php/40/sources/Avoiding_plagiarism.pdf

Sources

Ballenger, Bruce. The Curious Writer. 3rd Ed. Boston: Longman, 2011. Print. ---. The Curious Researcher. 7th Ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print. Faigley, Lester. Writing: A Guide to College and Beyond. 3rd Ed. Boston:

Pearson, 2012. Print. “Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing.” Council of Writing

Program Administrators. WPAcouncil.org. Jan 2011. Web. Howard, Rebecca Moore. "Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death

Penalty." College English 57.7 (Nov. 1995): 708-36. Print. Johnson-Sheehan, Richard and Charles Paine. Writing Today. 2nd Ed. Boston:

Pearson, 2012. Print. The Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University. Owl.english.purdue.edu.

Web. N.d. Web. Seelye, Katharine Q. "USA Today Reporter Quits Over Lifting Quotations." New

York Times 6 May 2005: C5(L). Academic OneFile. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.