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    Using

    paraphrase

    in writing

    Adapted from:

    Davies, M. Quoting, plagiarism and quoting. University of Melbourne. Retrieved from:

    http://tlu.ecom.unimelb.edu.au/pdfs/crals/Lecture on 7th June 2008 andFolse, K.S., Mahnke, M.K., Solomon E.V., and Williams L. (2003) Blueprints 2

    Composition skills for academic writers. USA. Thomson Heinle.

    http://tlu.ecom.unimelb.edu.au/pdfs/crals/Lecturehttp://tlu.ecom.unimelb.edu.au/pdfs/crals/Lecture
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    Learning outcomes

    understandthe

    importance to

    paraphrase

    identify agood

    paraphrase

    understandthe

    techniquesof

    paraphrasing

    apply thetechniques ofparaphrasing

    introducingan outside

    source

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    Definition of paraphrase

    Paraphrase

    Restate what has

    been said or

    written in a

    different way

    Use your own

    words to express

    another writers

    words and ideas

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    The importance of paraphrasing

    To avoid plagiarism

    To report ideas and information which

    belong to someone else

    As an alternative to quoting

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    Five attributes of

    a good paraphrase

    1. The use of different words to convey the

    same ideas and information as the original

    writing

    2. The length of the paraphrase is of almost

    equal length to the original

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    3. The grammar and vocabulary are not the

    same with the exception of technical terms

    Five attributes of

    a good paraphrase

    4. The use of multiple paraphrasing strategies

    simultaneously

    5. The use of varied paraphrasing strategies

  • 7/28/2019 Paraphrase Technique

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    Why isparaphrasingimportant?

    What are theattributes of a

    good

    paraphrase?

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    Techniques in paraphrasing

    Use synonyms

    Use varied sentence patterns

    Change the order of ideas

    Break long sentences into short ones

    Simplify abstract ideas

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    Technique 1:

    Using synonyms

    Have a good dictionary or thesaurus at hand

    Original

    miniscule

    Paraphrased

    well equipped room

    with scientific equipment

    for experiments

    more or less eight

    hundred

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    Technique 1:

    Using synonyms

    Have a good dictionary or thesaurus at hand

    Original

    miniscule

    Paraphrased

    minute / small

    well equipped room

    with scientific equipment

    for experiments

    self-contained laboratory

    more or less eight

    hundred

    about eight hundred

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    Technique 2:

    Varying sentence structure

    Original

    Development can

    cause disaster.

    Paraphrased

    ________________

    ________________

    ________________

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    Technique 2:

    Varying sentence structure

    Original

    Development can

    cause disaster.

    Paraphrased

    Disaster as a result of

    development ispossible.

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    Technique 3:

    Changing the order of ideas

    Original

    Development can

    improve the quality oflife if we plan carefully

    for the future.

    Paraphrased

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    Technique 3:

    Changing the order of ideas

    Original

    Development can

    improve the quality oflife if we plan carefully

    for the future.

    Paraphrased

    Carefully forward

    planning can ensurethat development will

    meet our future

    needs.

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    Technique 4:

    Breaking long sentence into short ones

    Original

    During the study it

    was found that men

    and women have

    different taste in

    reading genres

    whereby older menprefer emotional

    stories while younger

    ones prefer factual

    details.

    Paraphrased

    Both men and women

    have different reading

    genres. Older men

    prefer emotional

    reading articles.

    Younger men preferfactual materials to

    read.

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    Technique 4:

    Breaking long sentence into short ones

    Original

    Throughout the

    process, it became

    clear that many of the

    people in the study

    were having difficulty

    and were becomingfrustrated as they

    completed the ASC

    Research.

    Paraphrased

    The ASC Research

    involved a course of

    action. It was evident

    as the research came

    to an end that most

    of the researchparticipants faced

    problems and felt

    annoyed.

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    Technique 5:

    Simplifying abstract ideas

    Original

    This model provides a

    microeconomic

    theoretical rational for

    why researchers have

    failed to find consistent

    evidence of the

    superiority of one

    teaching technique overanother in the production

    of learning in economics.

    Paraphrased

    ____________________

    ____________________

    ____________________

    ____________________

    ____________________

    ____________________

    ____________________

    ________________________________________

    ____________________

    ____________________

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    Technique 5:

    Simplifying abstract ideas

    Original

    This model provides a

    microeconomic

    theoretical rational for

    why researchers have

    failed to find consistent

    evidence of the

    superiority of one

    teaching technique overanother in the production

    of learning in economics.

    Paraphrased

    This accounts for why

    theorists working in the

    area found the following:

    a student that is taught

    with Method A is as

    unprepared as he is

    taught with Method B.

    The evidence does notshow that either A or B is

    better in terms of learning

    outcomes.

  • 7/28/2019 Paraphrase Technique

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    How manytechniquesare there in

    paraphrasing?

    What arethey?

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    Introducing an outside source

    Use the phrase According to followed bythe name of the author or the name of book.

    For example:According to Amin

    In(the name of the author or the name of

    book) view

    For example: In Amins view

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    On a final note

    Always ensureinformation

    paraphrased

    is true to theoriginal

    Use a

    variety of

    paraphrasing

    techniques

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    exitLesson 6

    Paraphrasing Sources

    A paraphrase is when you would focus on one or twosentences of a writer and put them into your own words.

    You would do this if you wanted to highlight the details,

    facts or arguments within the sentence(s).

    You not only want to change one or two words of the

    original, but to put the whole sentence into your own words.

    REMEMBER :Paraphrased passages still require citation because

    the ideas came from another source, even though you are putting

    them in your own words.

    L 6

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    Example of a paraphrase from Newsweek:

    Original: A 1997 study by Japanese researchers showed

    that repetitive rhythms can bring on either serenity or

    arousal (Begley, 59).

    Paraphrase:

    __________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________

    exitLesson 6

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    3 criteria for a GOOD paraphrase:i. A good paraphrase has the same meaning as the

    original all main ideas included

    No new ideas added

    ii. A good paraphrase is different enough from theoriginal to be considered your own writing

    Uses very few original words, changes grammar and

    vocabulary as much as possible.

    iii. A good paraphrase refers directly to (or cites) the

    original source. Must include the name of the author or the source

    (You will study citing and referencing in Week 3 and 4)

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    NOW YOU TRY :

    Many of the doctors taking part in the survey on assisted suicide doubted

    whether they could decide if a patient had less than six months to live.The Anguish of Doctors 1996

    Paraphrase 1 : According to a survey on assisted suicide in The Anguish

    of Doctors (1996), many doctors disagree with the assisted suicide

    because they cant know when a patient will die.

    Paraphrase 2 : In a survey on assisted suicide in The Anguish of Doctors

    (1996), many doctors were not sure they could always know whether a

    patient will die within six months.

    Which paraphrase meets all 3 criteria?

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    ANSWER :

    Paraphrase 1 doesnt meet all 3

    criteria because it does not

    have the same meaning.

    Paraphrase 2 is accurate.

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    NOW YOU TRY!

    Countries are likely to indulge in romance if they are

    wealthy and value individualism over the community.- Levine, Robert, Is Love a Luxury? 1993

    Paraphrase 1 : Rich individual countries are more

    likely to think love is important (Levine, 1993).

    Paraphrase 2: Countries that are rich and value

    individualism are more likely to believe in romanticlove (Levine, 1993).

    Which paraphrase meets all 3 criteria?

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    The end