soc- ch. 19- start of religion.  *old stone age or paleolithic age, until about 10,000 bc  the...

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Soc- Ch. 19- Start of ReligionThe Dawn of History*Old Stone Age or Paleolithic age, until about 10,000 BC The people were know as hunter gatherers or nomadsPeople made tools, digging sticks, spears and axes from natural materials Learned to build fires and wear clothingDeveloped spoken languagesBefore writing systems are developedReligions began- How do we know?

Sungir, Russia, buried some 25,000 years ago 2*New Stone Age or Neolithic Age.11,000 years ago*Humans learned to farm, a development that transformed the way people livedPlanting seeds and domesticating animals* By about 5,000 years ago, the advances made by early farming communities led to the rise of civilizations.Social hierarchyAccumulation of personal propertyNew technologies

3Beginnings of Civilizations*Cities, first rose in river valleysWaterFarmingRenewable soilAnimals Transportation

4Mesopotamia Climate: Unpredictable flooding -Why a blessing? -Why a curse? Topography: No geographical barriers -Why is that a problem?

5Sumerian Religion* PolytheisticGods controlled every aspect of lifeMore pessimistic than Egyptians

The Bull-man is a demon. He is a man above the waist and a bull below the waist. He also has the horns and the ears of a bull. He helps people fight evil and chaos. He holds the gates of dawn open for the sun god Shamash and supports the sun disc. Ishtar is the morning and evening star (the planet we call Venus), and the goddess of love and war. She is shown as a woman standing on a lion, generally holding several weapons. 6ReligionBelieved gods controlled every aspect of life. Anthropomorphic - gods possess same characteristics as man Man at the mercy of the gods - Why? Natural disasters Natural blessing7The Code of Hammurabifirst written set of laws 282+ laws Eye for an eye, life for life What does that mean?

Hammurabi Babylonian Leader 1792-1750 B.C.E8Egypt: The Gift of the Nile4,160 miles longest river in the worldPredictable floodingcarried rich deposits of silt along with it.primary means of communication and transportation.

9Explain how the first Egyptian civilization was shaped by its natural environment Imposing natural barriers of desert and harborless seacoast provided what?protection from outside influences and threats and allowed Egypt to develop a unique culture in isolation and security

10Discuss the image of the pharaoh and the reason for construction of the pyramids.Pharaohgod on earthmaintain maat, the divine order of the universeHe was the link between the people and the gods, therefore ensuring the welfare and prosperity of the country. The death of the pharaoh was criticalbecause the well-being of the state depended on him. every effort was made to ensure that he had a safe journey back to the gods in his afterlife.

11Religion in the Lives of Ancient EgyptiansEgyptians, like all ancient peoples believed that the Gods controlled nature, especially the weather and illness

Egyptian Priest12Most Honored Egyptian GodsMajor Gods: -Amon-Re (ra) was the sun god Most Powerful God! -Osiris was the god of the underworld and of the Nile. -Isis was the most powerful mother goddess worshiped all over Egypt

13MummificationMummify to preserve a sound body for the Ka to return to 70 day process Improper embalming leads to second true death

14MummificationKa Spirit created when all men are born This spirit of life returns once the body has passed the test

15A Fateful TestEgyptians had to pass test after they died. It was believed that dead souls were ferried across a lake of fire to the hall of Osiris The heart of the dead was weighed against a feather if the heart weighted less he was allowed to go on Those who were viewed as sinners were fed to the crocodile-shaped eater of the dead/ those who were viewed as worthy entered the happy field of food.

16Where are the Religions?