hunters and gatherers

Download Hunters and Gatherers

If you can't read please download the document

Post on 30-Dec-2015

36 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Hunters and Gatherers. Club of Rome 1972. “Limits to Growth”. What is Going on in the Developing World?. A typical street picker’s “cart”. Bycicle with cardboards. Some Examples. B) San Francisco vs. Mumbai. A) Laredo and Nuevo Laredo. The Case of Argentina. Lorries, Light Trucks, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

  • Hunters and Gatherers

  • Club of Rome 1972Limits to Growth

  • What is Going on in the Developing World?A typical street pickers cart Bycicle with cardboards

  • Some ExamplesA) Laredo and Nuevo LaredoB) San Francisco vs. Mumbai

  • The Case of ArgentinaLorries, Light Trucks, and Buses Arriving in The Federal District

    Inside Sight of the Street Pickers TrainTrain and Street Pickers at a Station

  • The Case of Argentina

  • The Case of Argentina

  • The Case of Argentina Between 1999 and 2000 these cooperatives were formed: El Ceibo (Palermo), Reconquista (Tres de Febrero), El Orejano (San Martn) y Renaser (La Matanza), CooperativesWhile between 2000 and 2002, the following cropped up: Nuevo Rumbo (Lomas de Zamora), Mujeres para la dignidad (Lavallol), Reciclado Sur (Lans), Villa Malaver y La perla (San Pedro). All these cooperatives found in the Institute of Cooperative Funds an agglutinating environment became the counseling body for the procurement of registrations and as a potential source of funding for the groups.

  • The Case of Argentina PeriodMay 2008March 2009Carboard 0.09/Kg 0.06/KgNewspaper 0.07/Kg 0.054/KgWhite Paper 0.2/Kg 0.18/KgTetrapak 0,1/Kg 0.08/KgColoured PET 0.24/Kg 0.14/Kg Crystal PET 0.32/Kg 0.2/Kg Glass 0.038/Kg 0.042/KgAluminium Cans 1.1/Kg 0.6/KgCopper 4.24/Kg 2.4/Kg1=$5

  • PIECES OF METAL

    PET BOTTLESPILED UP BOTTLES

    GLASS COLLECTED BY OCTOPUSES

  • SORTING PLANTSJanuary / December 2008

    Hoja1

    DECEMBER 2008VIDRIOPETPLSTICOSPAPELMETALESOTROS

    PROECONOR S.A.PRIVADA109.28151.2487.66233.841.6241.44

    CLASIFICAR S.A.PRIVADA5.9292.44309.64439.6486.2242.88

    SYRBA S.A.PRIVADA102.1420.26133.04185.648.084.98

    MORASCHI S.A.PRIVADA442234.58525.21145.1429.3262.08

    FAIDES RECYCLE S.A.PRIVADA83.7181.22406.62447.92115.8878.26

    TOTAL743.04679.741462.162452.18241.12229.64

    LAS PILETASSOCIAL9.82026.64133.4629.472.68

    UN NUEVO AMANECERSOCIAL241.84323.69245.43680.87107.5843.44

    ESPERANZA DEL LIBERTADORSOCIAL487.1261.6378.3565.36170.6671.14

    INDEPENDENCIASOCIAL144.833.88207.16391.1473.2236.24

    LANZONE RECICLASOCIAL118.739.2159.1363.3831.3825.4

    TODOS RECICLADOSSOCIAL242.653.66232.64644.12120.2251.72

    TREN BLANCOSOCIAL7.5600000

    TOTAL1252.44512.031249.272778.33532.53230.62

    TOTAL1995.481191.772711.435230.51773.65460.26

    DATA EXPRESSED IN TONS

    GLASSPETPLASTICSPAPERMETALSOTHERS

    743.04679.741462.162452.18241.12229.64

    1252.44512.031249.272778.33532.53230.62

    TOTAL1995.481191.772711.435230.51773.65460.26

    Hoja2

    Hoja3

    *In the remote past, hunters and gatherers wandered from place to place searching for food. The sense of scarcity prevailed among human beings. Everything available had to be used and almost nothing became waste. Due to limited techniques, natural resources remained little exploited and all types of waste had to be recycled. Everything has a value, a use and man still controls the cycle of materials.

    **The Club of Rome insisted on the need to treat and recycle waste.New waste collection methods to reduce pollution and promote recycling of reusable waste. More efficient recycling techniques to reduce the consumption of basic raw materials, etc.Humans will need to collect, sort, but also recover and recycle, going back to the old ideal of alchemists: complete the material cycle, turn waste into a resource. There is a large mass of population living behind waste collection . The coexistence in a city with highways as well as more and more sophisticated cars within the same setting where waste street pickers with human powered carts pass through is a trivial though obvious representation of an urban and civilized world that does not manage to impose itself over a rural and archaic one. 4- a- It is the informal recycling system applied in The Two Laredos, a boundary area between the USA and Mexico, limited by the Rio Grande and made up by the municipalities of Laredo (USA) and Nuevo Laredo (Mexico). The cardboards collected by collectors in Laredo (USA) and sold in warehouses of Nuevo Laredo (Mexico) are consumed by a paper industry in Monterrey (Syurfit), which in turn is subsidiary of one of the worlds largest multinational corporations of paper products. Collectors worked for the factories as raw material providers even if they were not their employees. In this way, cardboard street pickers start up a chain of recovery of relevant dimensions and they reinvent goods and labour where there was garbage and unemployment. The independent recycling of the benefits that the public policies related to the environment may imply is an eminently economic activity. Cardboard street pickers do not recycle, do not stockpile, do not buy, they only collect. 4-b- Greg Ruiz and Tara Bai Hiyale live on opposite sides of the world, in utterly different cities: San Francisco and Mumbai. Mr Ruz has a steady job which brings in almost $20 an hour, along with a pension, health insurance and even a stake in the company concerned, thanks to an employee share-ownership plan. Mrs Hiyale lives hand to mouth, subsisting in a slum on $2 a day with the help of a local charity. Yet they both do the same job: sorting through the local rubbish, trying to salvage goods that can be re-used. The stark differences in their circumstances say a lot about the global business of recycling. The swarming flies and stickly, fetid smell that fill the shed do not seem to put the her off her work.//Rag-picking de luxe. In San Francisco, Mr Ruz works for Norcal Waste Systems, which handless most of the city`s household rubbish. Some days he stands by a conveyor belt in a huge warehouse, picking wood, cardboard, plasterboard and metal out of demolition debris. The belt moves quite fast, so only the biggest pieces can be retrieved. The rest falls into a skip, to be hauled off to a landfill.//In another cathedral-like warehouse by municipal Per 96, Norcal sorts the stuff local residents put into their recycling bins. An impossibly complicated network of conveyor belts, chutes and tubes whizzes the trash this way and that. Machines separate out different materials, in much the same way as Mrs Hiyale and her fellow rag-pickers do back in Mumbai. A magnet lifts up any iron and steel. A gadget called an eddy-current-separator causes other metals, such as aluminium and cooper, to jump, literally, off the line into different bins. A series of whirling discs arranged into a steep slope carries the ighter goods mainly paper- upwards but allows heavier ones to fall. Workers pick off phone books, glass and plastic bottles.//Yet despite all this clever kit, the sorting at Pier 96 is much less elaborate and precise that that perfomed by Mumbais ragpickers. Plastic and paper is separated into fewer colours and categories; indeed many types of plastic are not accepted at all. The conveyor belt move too fast to catch everything and the workers and machines both make mistakes that they cannot correct.//No one knows Mumbais recycling rate, but seems likely to exceed San Franciscos for a simple reason. In Mumbai recycling is profitable pursuit for all involved whereas in San Francisco it costs most residents money. Indian ragpickers require no wages, equipment or electricity. By contrast, Norcal has invested $38m in the materials recovery facility (or MRF, in the industry jargon) at Pier 96 and keeps paying out on running costs. If we tried to describe the "common sense ideas or what habitually is believed in connection with cardboard street pickers in Argentina, we would be able to make the following statements: They appeared after the 2001 crisis; They are organized in cooperatives, harmoniously distributed in the urban space; Undergo ill-treatment by the warehouses owners who exploit them; Their activity is economically marginal, sumptuary; The solution to their problem are the social plants or green centres that would be places used for waste sorting and stockpiling administered them in cooperatives. // Described under different names, there have been informal waste collectors in all periods and their procedure is far from being an original survival strategy learned after the 2001-2002 crisis by the poor and urban unemployed in Argentina. Apart from it, other variables should be combined. I specifically refer to the access to waste (both in the street and in dumps) and an industry that may require waste as inputs for the production of new products. Therefore, there are 3 conditions that should be present: unemployment (and poverty related to unemployment); available recyclable waste; industrial requirement of that waste. //Where do the materials collected by street pickers go? Street pickers collect and sort, and finally sell to warehouse or depot owners, who in turn sell materials to the industries that recycle. The smaller depot owners are not usually specialized in the treatment of any type of material in particular. These depot owners usually sell their materials to specialized depots: paper trimmers for the case of papers and cardboards; scrap metal sellers divided into those for ferrous metals and those for non ferrous metals; plastic sellers for plastic; ragmen for bottles and similarly with all the rest of materials. Then, the industries consuming those materials as raw materials get involved. Industries may be small, medium or large.SORTING PLANTThere are 450 workers in charge of the selection process.SORTING PLANT

    6. Cooperatives: According to the Program on Urban Renewal, 98.1% of street pickers does not belong to any association or cooperative. However, among the public in general and among not few officials in charge of developing public policies related to waste management prevails the belief that this type of organizations are predominant

Recommended

View more >