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  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture Most common 250,000 Hunters & Gatherers

    Allows forSettlement DevelopmentCivilization

  • AgricultureCommercial Farming Market

    Subsistence Only enough

  • Agriculture Origin Carl Sauer Vegetative PlantingNot seeds / Parts of plants SE Asia Separation / Replanting Diffusion China, Japan, Africa, SW Asia, etc

  • Agriculture Origin Andes / West AfricaPhysical barriers

  • Seed Agriculture Plants from seedsImprovement Higher yield

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • ! Quiz Ferret!

  • Where does Carl Sauer believe the first hearth of agricultural practices is located? Quiz Ferret!

  • SE Asia using vegetative planting! Quiz Ferret!

  • 1st Revolution Agriculture / Neolithic Revolution 12,000 yearsDomestication Hunter / GathererStationary Independent Development

  • Agricultural RevolutionW India Wheat / Barley SW Asia Barley, Wheat, Animals Sheep, GoatsNorthern China MilletS Mexico Squash / Corn

  • Agriculture Northern Peru CottonSquash Bean

  • Industrial Revolution 2nd Agricultural RevolutionEnclosure Movement Land Divided Wealthier Individuals Ownership of Land

  • Industrial Revolution Social ChangesMove to citiesJobsImproved TransportationNew forms of energy

  • Industrial Revolution New Technologies Horses Collars Field Drainage Irrigation Storage Understanding Soil Nutrients Crop Rotation

  • Industrial RevolutionSelective Breeding Plants and Animals

  • Industrial Revolution1800sGlobalization / Industrialization Increased food supply Agricultural Production / Fertilizers PesticidesFarming / Food production Specialization From farm to factory

  • Industrialization Crops raised / processed / distributed Milk 1700s1900s

  • Agribusiness Modern Food Production Large Corporate farmsOwn most or all parts of productionSeed -> Marketing and selling of produce

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Green Revolution1950s PresentNorman Borlaug Hybrid Seeds / Fertilizers Maximize output Help others support populationsMexico India

  • Green Revolution Wheat / Maize / Rice Pesticides and FertilizersWorld Hunger Grain production increased45%

  • Green Revolution Africa

    Problems Greater inequality Inadequate resources

  • Green Revolution Problems Pollution Greater use of energyPesticides Water Diversity in seed strands

  • Bio-Revolution Genetic Modification GMOsImprove production Genetic Engineering Faster / larger / Pesticides / Drought Resistance

  • Bio-RevolutionAnimals Meat Milk

  • Bio-RevolutionSupport Output Reduce Cost Fertilizer More food for growing world

  • Bio-Revolution Criticism Crop disease Genetic Diversity More pesticides Push out small farmers

  • ! Quiz Ferret!

  • Who was the American scientist who started the Green Revolution? Quiz Ferret!

  • Norman Borlaug! Quiz Ferret!

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agricultural Practices Subsistence Commercial

  • Subsistence Agriculture Less Developed Nations Provide for family Three Types Shifting Intensive Subsistence Pastoralism

  • Subsistence AgricultureShifting Cultivation Three Field System Rotate Fields Nutrients Replenished Tropical Regions Africa, Amazon River, SE Asia

  • Subsistence Agriculture Thin top soil Nutrient Depletion Heavy Rains

    Slash and Burn Agriculture Clear land Swidden Labor intensive Large amounts of Land

  • Subsistence AgricultureSlash and Burn Many types of seed Reduce crop failure risk Environmental Issues Land cannot recover Cause permanent damage

  • Subsistence Agriculture Intensive Subsistence Heavily populated areas Not much land China, India, SE Asia Terraced Farming

  • Subsistence AgricultureIntensive Rice Rainfall Wheat, corn, milletDouble Cropping Multiple crops in one field

  • Subsistence Agriculture Pastoralism Breeding and herding Not hospitable for crops Grasslands, deserts, steppes Sedentary Living in one placeNomadic Roaming

  • Subsistence Agriculture Pastoralism Cows, Sheep, Goats, Camels Animal meat not usually for consumptionsUse animals for fur, milk, and to tradeN Africa, Central / S Africa, ME, Central Asia (Mongolia)Nomads move with cattle Cool highlands = summerWarm lowlands = winter Transhumance

  • ! Quiz Ferret!

  • Which category of agricultural practice is most likely found in LDC?Quiz Ferret!

  • Subsistence! Quiz Ferret!

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Commercial Agriculture For profit Large Scale MDCCapital IntensiveMediterranean Mixed Crop / LivestockDairyingRanchingLarge Scale Grain

  • Commercial Agriculture Mediterranean Mediterranean Region Not Mediterranean Region California, Chile, SA, S Australia Hot, dry summers Mild, wet winters Barley, wheat, olives, grapes Sheep / goats

  • Commercial AgriculturePlantation Farming Agricultural Estates 1 or 2 crops in high demandCash cropsNot for immediate human consumptionLuxury items Not essentials Money is made from high volume sales

  • Commercial Agriculture Europeans Colonies Luxury items Coffee, tea, cotton, etc Climate not hospitable

  • Commercial Agriculture Mild / Tropical Climates Africa, LA, and Asia Along coast Owned by overseas corporations

  • Commercial AgricultureMixed Crop / Livestock Crops, Cattle, Sheep, Goats Ducks, Chickens, Crops grown to feed CattleCattle produce fertilizer / other products Depend on animals

  • Commercial Agriculture Mixed Crop / Livestock Not dependent on weather Europe / E USA Not as much land available Crop Rotation

  • Commercial Agriculture Ranching Pastoralism Lots of Land Sheep / Cattle Meat / Wool Dry / Arid Climate Western US, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay

  • Commercial AgricultureRanching Fattening Farms

  • ! Quiz Ferret!

  • What type of commercial agriculture is practiced in LDCs? Quiz Ferret!

  • Plantation and Mediterranean Agriculture! Quiz Ferret!

  • Commercial AgricultureDairying Milk based products Close to market Perishable dairies Not as close Nonperishable Dairies

  • Commercial AgricultureDairying Smaller / Capital Intensive Machines Milkshed Produced and shipped Transportation / technology Move further away

  • Commercial AgricultureLarge Scale Grain Production WheatGrown for consumption US Western Europe Cattle

  • Commercial Agriculture Industrial Revolution More land / More efficient Machines CombineSeed Drill Tiller Engine

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Farm Locations Physical Environment FeaturesSoil Relief Shape Slope / Altitude Climate Rainfall / Temperature

  • Farm Locations Political / Cultural Factors Culture Agricultural practices Cows / Pigs / Horses Political Governments Control Prices Loan Programs Seed Types

  • Farm Locations CropsNational Treasures France and Grapes Germany and Hops

  • Farm Locations Economic Factors Purchase price Coffee Beans Corn Land Rent Rent farmer pays Influence placing of farm Further away from city

  • Farm Locations New Technologies Hydroponics Vertical Gardens

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Von Thunen Model used to predict Explains agricultural land use pattern Assumptions One city = One market place Maximum profit Equally farmable / Equally productive 1 form of transportationTransportation costs are fixed

  • Von Thunen Two variables Distance from farm to market Transportation Cost Cost of Land Land Rent Giant Bulls EyeMarket centerRings Extensive vs Intensive Rent and Transportation Cost

  • Farm Location Ex:Grain farmer Land / further away from cityDairy farmer Land / closer to the city

  • Globalization European Colonization Mercantilism Grow / give / sell Grocery store Peripheral / LDC

  • Truck Farms Tropical Countries

    More Developed nations Organic Farming

  • Local Food MovementCSA (Community Supported Agriculture)Back to local markets Small farmers Locally supported

  • Local Food MovementRegional Suppliers Reduces pollution from trucks Food is fresh No preservativesFewer fertilizers More expensiveMore expensive methods Local Restaurant buyers

  • Urban Food Movement Growing food in urban areasLearn about food supplyEat healthier Eat local

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use

  • ! Quiz Ferret!

  • What are the two important variables in von Thunens model? Quiz Ferret!

  • Transportation cost and land rent! Quiz Ferret!

  • Human ImpactsChange nature of farming operations Small farmers Larger corporations Cash Crop problems

  • Hunger and Food SupplyFood distribution / Access to food Under nutrition Famine

  • Hunger and Food Supply Political Situations Civil War

    Not a shortage Inability of food to reach places Infrastructure problem Corruption Problem

  • Desertification and Soil Erosion Soil problems Intense farming for profit Soil Erosion Loss of top layer of soil Desertification Expansion of Desert


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