People of the Stone Age Hunters and Gatherers. Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey,

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> People of the Stone Age Hunters and Gatherers </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologist </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> No matter what you may have seen in the movies, early man did not live during the same period in history as dinosaurs! Dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The first human did not appear until around 4 million years ago. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Four million years ago, our planet was teeming with life! There were deer, giraffes, hyenas, sheep, goats, horses, elephants, camels, beavers, cave lions, ants, termites, woolly mammoths, saber- toothed tigers, giant sharks, dogs with huge teeth, and all kinds of birds, plants, and fish. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> It was during this time that early man first appeared. How do scientists know about an early man who lived millions of years ago? Lucy told them! </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> In 1974, a skeleton was found in Africa. The bones were those of a female, about 20 years old when she died. Scientists named her Lucy. About 3 million years ago, when Lucy was alive, she was about 4 feet tall and weighed about 50 pounds. Scientists suspect that she fell into a lake or river and drowned. Scientists are like detectives. They can tell a great deal from a skeleton, whether it's one year old or 3 million years old! humb/3/31/Lucy_blackbg.jpg/220px- Lucy_blackbg.jpg </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Prehistory is everything that happened before written records. Writing developed in different places at different times. This means that, technically, the dates for prehistory vary around the world. Prehistory is the time before the very first human writing, about 5,000 years ago. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The earliest humans probably lived in Africa. They spread to the rest of the world over the next tens of thousands of years as they hunted and gathered food to survive. This time is called the Paleolithic Age. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Hunters &amp; Gatherers: The Stone Age people were hunters and gatherers. We know this because scientists have found fossils and artifacts, which reveal traces of their life. These people did not plant crops. They gathered wild fruits, nuts, berries, and vegetables. The role of men was to do the hunting The role of women was gathering and caring for children </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The animals they killed provided meat for food, bones for tools, and hides for clothing. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Nomads: People who depend on wild plants and animals to survive. They followed where the food supply went and gathered seeds and nuts. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> They set up seasonal camps in caves or rock shelters wherever the animals were plentiful. Bands migrated when food (plants or animals) became scarce in one location. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> About 100,000 years ago, people began to slowly leave Africa and populate the world. They spread to Asia and Europe first. Then to the Americas! They did not need a boat. The Ice Age was here! They traveled across giant walkways of frozen ice, over what later would become vast rivers and seas. Scientists have found artifacts of their tools and weapons, which help us to understand how they lived, where they went, and how they got there. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Scarcity of food Growing population Changing climate (desertification) Following animals on the move (hunting) Migration Video </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> During the last ice age between 100,000 B.C. and 8000 B.C. the water level in the oceans dropped revealing a land bridge over the Bering Strait connecting Asia and North America </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Old Stone Age 2,500,000 to 8000 BC Made stone chopping tools Hunter-gatherers Humans migrated across the globe Cave paintings and small carvings Simple clothing Some jewelry Figured out how to make fire Began an oral language Domesticate dog </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Began after the last Ice Age around 10,000 BC Gradual shift from gathering and hunting to farming Towards the end of this age, some settled near rivers and other bodies of water to farm Others continued hunting and gathering Attached sharpened tools to handles for better hunting (spears) Cured and stored food for the winter Used traps to catch food. Fisherman used nets woven from vines and fishhooks. Built rafts and canoes to catch bigger fish Wove clothing and blankets Bow and arrow </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> New Stone Age 8000-3000 BC- depends on location Pottery Permanent settlements Agriculture (farming) Animal domestication Begin to make tools out of metal Trading Writing Simple calendar </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Being able to make fire changed everything! People began to cook their food, which helped to reduce disease. People collected around the fire each night, to share stories of the day's hunt and activities, which helped to develop a spirit of community. Because they could make fire, they were free to move about in search of food. They made warm clothes from animal skins. At night, they built a campfire to cook the food and to stay warm. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> The Stone Age refers to the material (stone) used to make manmade tools. Over time early peoples tool- making skills were considerably improved. Their weapons included stone axes, spears, and knives. Image courtesy of Wikipedia: </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Cave Paintings are artifacts too. Animals were well drawn and filled in with natural colors to give them even more shape and substance. They drew stick figures for hunters. They drew stencils of hands. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> In your Social Studies notebook, explain how early humans adapted to their environments. Some examples are given below to get you started. Use of Fire Weapons and Tools Animals </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> The Neolithic Revolution (8000BC-3500BC) Sometimes termed the Agricultural Revolution. Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animals. Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary (they sit). Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurred. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Agricultural Surplus As farming technology improved people were able to grow the food they needed. Because of this not everyone had to work on providing food anymore and so people could do other things. Artisans People who made crafts such as textiles (fabrics), pottery, jewelry, etc... People could do what they were good at instead of having to farm. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Specialization of Labor Because people could focus on one particular thing technology and skills improved. Storage of Food Pottery and other devices were invented as ways to grow extra food. This extra food was vital for feeding a growing population. Trade As artisans made goods they began to exchange goods with other villages, and later cities, who had different goods. This was a barter system. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Africa (Nile River Valley) 5000 BCE Wheat, barley Central America and Mexico 5000 BCE Beans, corn, squash China 6000 BCE - Millet 5000 BCE - Rice India (Indus River Valley) 5000 BCECotton Iraq (Mesopota mia - Fertile Crescent) 5000 BCE Wheat, barley Peru 3000 BCE Tomatoes, potatoes </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Interactions Between Nomadic Peoples and Sedentary Agricultural Peoples Some nomadic peoples engaged in pastoralism (farming animals). Some practiced slash &amp; burn agriculture. The violent and peaceful interaction between nomads and agriculturalists endures throughout history. (Trade &amp; raids) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> High starch diets slowly allow Sedentary populations to grow. First plow invented c.6000BC; crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BC. Pop. grows from 5-8 million to 60-70 million. Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization. Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> First Towns Develop Catal Huyuk Modern Turkey First settled: c. 7000BCE Jericho Modern Israel First settled: c. 7000BCE </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Advantages Disadvantages </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Advantages Common culture expressed Mutual protection Near farms Grain and seed storage Population growth Organized society Disadvantages Disease spreads more rapidly among a dense population Grain stores were tempting to raiders Permanent settlements suffered from natural disasters (drought, fire, floods) Heavily reliant on success of crops </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Typical Catal Huyuk interior (restoration). Wall mural of Catal Huyuk. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Found in Anatolia (Modern Day Turkey) Its walls enclosed 32 acres and up to 6,000 people. Grew many different crops and developed artisans and trade. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> One of the worlds very first permanent settlements 7500-5700 BC Located in what is now Turkey Population of approximately 6,500 people 1,000 dwellings crammed together No streets people climbed out through ladders in their ceilings Supported by agriculture and animal domestication Barley, peas, wheat Cattle, sheep </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Found in ancient Palestine near the Dead sea. It was in existence by 8000 B.C. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Towns Present Evidence of: Religious structures (burial rites, art) Political &amp; Religious leaders were the same Still relied on limited hunting &amp; gathering for food </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Roles of Women Women generally lost status under male- dominated, patriarchal systems. Women were limited in vocation, worked in food production, etc. Women may have lacked the same social rights as men. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Metal Working: From Copper to Bronze The working of metals became very important to early human settlements for tools &amp; weapons. Early settlements gradually shifted from copper to the stronger alloy bronze by 3,000BCushers in the Bronze Age! Metal working spread throughout human communities slowly as agriculture had. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Advanced Civilization: The Next Step? By 3500BC, relatively large, advanced preliterate societies had developed along the Indus, Huang He, Nile, and Tigris &amp; Euphrates Rivers. As societies grew in size and need, sedentary human beings were once again faced with pressures to adapt to changing natural and human environments. </li> </ul>