The Ancient World. I.Paleolithic I.Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) 1 million years B.C. A. History 1. Hunters/gatherers 2. Discoveries & developments.
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The Ancient WorldThe Ancient WorldPaleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)1 million years B.C.A. History1. Hunters/gatherers2. Discoveries & developmentsa. Fireb. Clothingc. Techniques for hunting/gatheringd. Simple social organizatione. Religionperhaps as early as 100,000 B.C.f. Notions of selfhood & individualityg. Awareness of death & burialh. Art to express themselvesi. System of notation30,000 B.C.Spain to Russia3. Ice Agesa. Great shifts in climateb. Three interglacial periodsc. Drops in sea level (Britain & Scandinavia joined Europe)B. Art1. 30,000 to 15,000 B.C.cave etchings 2. Woman of WillendorfVenus figurine a. In burial sites in a 1,100 mile band from western France to central Russiab. Fertility symbolc. Vitality in obesityd. Realism in folds and contours sophisticated balance in symbolic overstatemente. Mystical significance of womanhood3. Cave of Lascauxa. Discovery made by children in 1940b. Main hall (Hall of bulls)montage of larger-than-life bulls, horses, deer, and one mythological creatureup to 12c. Powerful, grand, warm in colord. Created over a long period of time with overall effect of a single, dramatic, communicative workNeolithic Age(New Stone Age)8,000 to 3,000 B.C.A. History1. Crops2. Stone tool improvement3. Pottery & textiles4. Small villagesB. Civilization1. Metal work2. Monumental architecture3. Writing4. Centralized bureaucracies5. Social classesIII. MesopotamiaA. Sumer6,000 B.C.1. Religiona. Permeated Sumerian lifeb. Found in the Gilgamesh epic7th century B.C.1) episodic tale of heros adventure2) based on historical rules of Erech or Uruk3) description of flood which parallels story of Noahc. Developed pantheon of gods2250 B.C.1) ensured harvest2) took human form3) Ishtargoddess of love and procreation4) city gods5) elaborate rituals6) dismal afterworld requiring earthly possessions7) ritual suicides2. Developmentsa. Writing1) most important Sumerian contribution2) pictures indicating syllabic sound3) baked into clay4) stabilizing effect on societyb. Technology1) bronze2) glass3) wheela) math based on 60b) timec) circlesd) thusarchitectural progresse) thusbrick-makingf) thuspotters wheelg) thuswheel for transportation (3,000 B.C.)3. arta. Depictions of kings in acts of devotionb. The Tell Asmar statues1) temple god statues2) suggest dignity despite crude execution3) lines which point to the heart4) suggestive of prayer5) cone or cylindrical shape typical of Sumerian style6) eyesa) largeb) expressivec) source of powerd) windows of the soule) all-seeing vigilance of the godsStanding Male Worshipper from Tell Asmar4. Musica. Stringed instrumentb. Probably lyrical, soft, and restrained5. Babylon1700 B.C.a. Considered the hub of the worldb. Sumerian cities along the Tigris & Euphrates1) Nineveh2) Aleppoc. Hammurabi and the law1) rigid class system2) eye for an eyeB. Assyria1. Babylon plundered by northern Assyrians1000 B.C.2. Citadel at Dur Sharrukina. Sargon II722 B.C.b. 250, 000 square feetc. Image of the cosmos
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