pferd praxis for s.steel

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  • 7/31/2019 Pferd PRAXIS for S.steel

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    PFERD Toolsfor Use on Stainless Steel

    P

    RAX

    IS

    Information provided byAugust Rggeberg Marienheide

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    Importance of stainless steels

    2

    Definition of stainless steels

    "Stainless steel" is a collective term coveringover 120 different steel grades which share thefollowing properties:

    They are alloyed with at least 10.5% chromi-um.

    They are corrosion-resistant without any pro-

    tective coating, forming an invisible surfacepassivation layer in the presence of oxygen.

    1. The thermal conductivity of austenitic steelsis lower to that of other steels (and moststainless steels are of the austenitic type). Asa result, the heat generated by the rotatingtool is not easily dissipated via the workpieceor the chips.

    2. Cutting speeds should be kept lower thanwith other steels, regardless of the machin-ing process used. The tool should not beapplied with excess pressure. Local overheat-ing may cause discoloration or distortion ofthe material, and thermal overloading of thetools would be a likely result.

    3. Abrasives designed for use on stainless steelsmust contain no elementary iron, whichmight form corrosive deposits in the work-piece. Similarly, to avoid such "extraneous"rust, a tool previously used on non-stainlesssteel should never be used on stainlessgrades.

    4. Chip particles from the workpiece ("sparks")may be transformed into non-stainless steelat the high temperatures developed duringmachining. Unless such particles are carefullyremoved, they too will cause extraneous ruston the workpiece surface.

    Thorough chemical and/or mechanical cleaning(by etching, pickling, polishing, etc.) is there-fore indispensable to protect stainless steel

    from extraneous surface corrosion. As long assuch cleaning is carefully performed and theworkpieces are kept away from non-stainlessgrades, the formation of extraneous rust onstainless steel is virtually impossible.

    Importance of stainless steels

    In the modern world, stainless steels are findingtheir way into an increasing number of applica-tions. Their outstanding properties, e.g.,

    high resistance

    toughness

    have given rise to a broad variety of uses.

    In addition, new grades of these materials arebeing developed continuously for specificneeds.

    Today, stainless steels have become indispens-able in a broad range of industries and applica-tions including

    chemical and petrochemical equipment.

    foodstuff processing vessels and machinery.

    process technology.

    pulp and paper processing.

    architecture (building fronts, handrails).

    power plant engineering.

    pump and turbine manufacturing.

    shipbuilding (piping, containers). structural and mechanical engineering.

    The particular characteristics of stainless steelsimpose specific requirements on the machiningand finishing tools used. Thus, most austeniticsteels are more difficult to machine than theirunalloyed counterparts due to their stickiness,edge build-up tendencies, and strain hardeningbehavior. On the other hand, the eco-friendli-ness of stainless steels - as expressed in theirdurability, corrosion resistance even whenuncoated, and recyclability - is a factor that hascontributed not least significantly to their evermore widespread use.

    The PFERD tool range for use on stain-less steels

    PFERD offers an extensive range of tools meet-ing the specific requirements of the stainlesssteel processor. Many of these tools were pur-pose-designed for this application; all havebeen found to give good results in everydaypractice.

    In addition, PFERD provides free application-related advice on all machining issues involvingstainless steels - without any obligation on yourpart. Our experienced field staff and technicalcustomer service engineers will be glad to be ofhelp.

    So why not give us a call?

    All of these tools are free of elementaryiron, sulfur, or chlorine.

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    Machining Tasks and Suitable Tools

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    Stationary cutting

    Stationary machines are employed, e.g., forcutting solid material, billets, pipes, and sec-tional products.

    This abrasive cutting technique is often used involume production environments.

    Suitable PFERD tools:

    Abrasive cut-off wheels up to 1250 mm dia.

    Refer to page 5.

    Freehand cutting

    Used on sheet metal, sectional products, pipes,and solid material.

    Suitable PFERD tools:Abrasive cut-off wheels in the 30 - 300 mmdia. range

    Refer to page 5.

    Geometry modification on medium-to-large workpieces

    For dressing surface weld joints, deburringedges, rounding off corners, etc.

    Suitable PFERD tools: Reinforced grinding wheels up to

    230 mm dia.

    POLIFAN flap discs

    Fiber discs

    COMBIDISC abrasive tools

    Flap wheels

    Refer to page 6.

    Geometry adjustments on smallerworkpieces

    This includes dressing and finishing of weldjoints in corner or angle areas, edge deburring,beveling or rounding work, and removing flashfrom slots and grooves.

    Suitable PFERD tools:

    Files

    Tungsten carbide burrs

    Mounted points

    POLICAP tools

    POLIROLL tools

    POLICO tools

    Abrasive spiral bands

    Ring wheels

    Overlap slotted disks

    COMBIDISC tools

    ATADISC tools

    Refer to pages 8 - 11.

    Surface texturing and cleaning

    Wherever surfaces are to be pre-ground, pol-ished, matt or satin-finished, marbled, orbrushed. Weld cleaning is another importantapplication.

    Suitable PFERD tools:

    Fan grinders, flap wheels

    COMBIDISC tools

    ATADISC tools

    Self-adhesive grinding disks

    POLINOX mounted points, ring wheels, starpads

    POLINOX foamed ring wheels

    POLIVLIES grinding wheels and discs

    POLICLEAN tools

    Marbling tools

    Poliflex fine grinding wheels

    Brushing tools

    Abrasive cloth rolls

    POLIVLIES hand pads

    POLICLEAN tools

    Refer to pages 11 - 14.

    Mechanical surface polishing

    Surfaces can be mechanically polished to ahigh luster. This is achieved with the aid of arotating basic tool to which a polishing paste isapplied.

    Suitable PFERD tools:

    Cloth rings, in conjunction with polishingpaste (bars)

    Non-woven abrasives, in conjunction withpolishing paste bars, diamond polishingpaste or grinding compound

    Refer to page 15.

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    Superior Finishes - from Coarse to Mirror-Polished

    4

    Stage 4

    This very fine surface can beproduced using the tools listedat right, starting out from a Stage 3 finish:

    Stage 3

    This fine surface can be producedusing the tools listed at right, startingout from a Stage 2 finish:

    Stage 2

    This rough surface can be obtained with thetools listed at right, starting out from a Stage1 finish:

    Stage 1

    This very rough surface can be produced withthe tools listed at right:

    This satin-finish surface can be produced withthe tools listed below:

    Tools for Stage 1

    Depressed-center grinding wheels

    POLIFAN flap discs

    Fiber discs

    Abrasive spiral bands

    Fan grinders

    Flap wheels

    COMBIDISC abrasive discs

    COMBIDISC Mini-POLIFAN discs

    Mounted points ADW/AWN/AW/AN,hardness grades I/H/L/M/N

    Satin-finishing tools

    POLINOX points, wheels and rolls,PNL/PNR/PNZ/PNL types (aluminium oxide orSiC)

    POLINOX foamed ring wheels PNK

    Power Brushes

    Marbling tools

    Poliflex marbling tools

    Marbling tools carrying non-woven abrasivediscs

    Matt-finishing tools

    POLINOX points, wheels and rolls

    POLINOX foamed ring wheels PNK

    Poliflex

    mounted points, PUR bond

    Cleaning tools

    POLIVLIES abrasive spiral bands

    INOX brushes

    SiC brushes POLINOX points, wheels and rolls

    COMBIDISC non-woven abrasive discs(hard type)

    POLICLEAN non-woven abrasive tools

    Rough to very fine surface grinding Surface texturing steps followingStage 3 surface preparation

    This marbled surface can be produced withthe tools listed below:

    This matt-finished surface can be producedwith the tools listed below:

    This cleaned surface can be obtained with thetools listed below:

    Tools for Stage 2

    POLIFAN flap discs

    Fan grinders

    Flap wheels

    COMBIDISC abrasive discs

    COMBIDISC Mini-POLIFAN discs

    COMBIDISC POLIVLIES discs (hard type)

    POLIVLIES discs, PV type

    POLIVLIES hook-and-loop discs

    POLICLEAN tools

    Mounted points (ADW bond type)

    Tools for Stage 3

    Poliflex fine grinding points with GH, GHR,PUR and TX bond

    Poliflex fine grinding wheels with GR andPUR bond

    Poliflex blocks

    POLIVLIES abrasive spiral bands, hand pads

    INOX brushes / SiC brushes

    Fan grinders

    Flap wheels

    COMBIDISC abrasive discs

    COMBIDISC non-woven abrasive discs (soft)

    POLINOX points PNL, PNR, PNG, PNZ POLINOX ring wheels / rolls

    Tools for Stage 4

    COMBIDISC non-woven abrasive discs (soft)

    COMBIDISC felt discs with grindingcompound / diamond polishing paste

    Cloth rings, used with bars of polishing paste

    Felt points with and without metal insert, in

    conjunction with grinding compound or dia-mond polishing paste

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    Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels

    5

    Abrasive cut-off wheels for stationarymachines

    The use of abrasive cut-off wheels on station-ary machines has evo

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