Lab 5 The Appendicular Skeleton, Fetal Skeleton & the Joints J.R. Schiller, Ph.D., G.R., Pitts, Ph.D., and A.L. Thompson, Ph.D.
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Chapter 8Lab 5The Appendicular Skeleton, Fetal Skeleton & the Joints J.R. Schiller, Ph.D., G.R., Pitts, Ph.D., and A.L. Thompson, Ph.D.Lab 5 ActivitiesThe appendicular skeletonThe fetal skeletonJoint modelsJoint classifications (structural and functional)Types of joints Movements allowed at a joint The Appendicular Skeleton (tan)Appendicular SkeletonThe bones appended to the axial skeleton:Can be broken down into subgroups to facilitate learning:Pectoral girdle attaches upper appendagesUpper appendage: arm, forearm, wrist, handPelvic girdle attaches lower appendagesBe able to distinguish male versus femaleEspecially important as relates to childbirthLower appendage: thigh, leg, ankle, footLearn all bones and bone markings on the list on p.5-2 of the lab manualPectoral Girdle and Upper Limb*Male versus Female PelvesThe angle of the pubic arch is keyReflects larger pelvic inlet/outlet of femaleOther sexual differences of PelvesFemales have wide, broad greater sciatic notches, moderate to deep preauricular sulci, auricular surfaces in females exhibit moderate to pronounced elevation compared to same features of male pelve Bones of the Right FootNeed know only talus and calcaneous of tarsalsMetatarsalsPhalangesArches of the FootThe Triple Arch Design greatly increases efficiency of Bipedal Locomotion.Lab 6: The Fetal Skeleton and ArticulationsThe Fetal SkeletonThe red areas represent the ossified parts of bonesThe Fetal SkullIntramembranous ossificationSutures fuse after birthflexible to squeeze through pelvic outletskull can expand to accommodate brain growth.FontanelsClassification of JointsStructuralFibrous - bones joined by fibrous connective tissue; no joint cavityCartilaginous - bones joined by cartilage; no joint cavitySynovial - bones separated by fluid filled cavityFunctionalSynarthroses - non-movableAmphiarthroses - slightly movableDiarthroses - freely movableFibrous JointsSuture - wavy border with dense fibrous connective tissue which penetrates into both boneSyndesmosis - connected by a ligamentGomphosis - peg in a socket (teeth)Cartilaginous JointsSynchondroses hyaline cartilageepiphyseal platemost limb bonesmost ribs to sternumSymphysesfibrocartilagepelvis, vertebraeSynovial JointsGeneral Structurearticular cartilagesynovial (joint) cavityarticular capsulesynovial fluidreinforcing ligamentsmeniscus (not illustrated)fibrocartilage pad,e.g., tempero-mandibular joint (TMJ) and tibio-femoral (knee) jointGliding (plane) jointFlat planes gliding over each otherIntercarpal and intertarsal jointsHinge JointsCylindrical projection fits into a notchUlna and humerusTibia and femurInterphalangeal jointsPivot JointsRounded end of one bone protrudes into sleeve or ring of bone or ligamentsAtlas (C1) and dens of the axis (C2)Proximal radio-ulnar jointCondyloid JointsRounded (convex) articulating surface of one bone fits into concave depression on the other boneRadio-carpal jointsMetacarpal-phalangeal jointsSaddle JointsEach articular surface has both convex and concave areasCarpo-metacarpal joint of the thumbBall and Socket JointsSpherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with cuplike socketProvides greatest rotational flexibilityShoulderHipSpecial cases of a condyloid joint which is capable of circumductionKnow the Terminology for Types of Motions in Your Lab GuideGlidingRotationFlexion/ExtensionAbduction/AdductionCircumductionSpecial MovementsTotal Knee Replacement; ~$16,000
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