The appendicular skeleton Appendicular skelton + skeletal muscles= movement.

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<ul><li><p>The appendicular skeletonAppendicular skelton + skeletal muscles= movement</p></li><li><p>Bones of the appendicular skeleton2 pectoral girdlesClavicles, scapulae2 upper extremitiesPelvic girdleCoxae (hip bones)2 lower extremities</p></li><li><p>Some important external features of bonesProcesses where tendons and ligaments attachTrochanter, tuberosity- large and smallTubercle- roundedCrest- ridgeSpine- pointedProcesses formed at articulationsHead, condyle, facetDepressions and openingsFossa, sulcus, foramen, sinus</p></li><li><p>Pectoral girdle</p></li><li><p>The clavicleJoint between clavicle and sternum is only direct connection between axial skeleton, shoulder girdleEasily fractured</p></li><li><p>Scapula (shoulder blade)Glenoid cavity articulates with head of humerus to form shoulder jointAcromion forms tip of shoulder; articulates with claviceCoracoid process is an attachment site</p></li><li><p>Upper limbArm (humerus)Glenohumeral jointDistal end articulates with radius and ulnaForearmRadius (lateral), ulna (medial)Fibrous membrane connects the two</p></li><li><p>Wrist and hand8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalangesCarpal tunnel formed by space between hamate and pisiform; scaphoid and trapeziumMedian nerve and flexor tendons pass through it</p></li><li><p>Pelvic girdle is much more massive than pectoral girdlePelvis: two coxae, sacrum, coccyxCoxa formed by ileum, ischium and pubisObturator foramen is largest in skeleton</p></li><li><p>Male and female pelvesFemale pelvis is lighter and shallowerwiderWider outlet</p></li><li><p>Pectoral vs pelvic girdlePectoral does not articulate directly with vertebraePectoral girdle provides more mobility than strengthPelvic girdle provides more strength than mobility</p></li><li><p>Lower limbFemur is longest, strongest, heaviest boneArticulates with pelvis at acetabulumArticulates with tibia and fibula at distal endTibia and fibula form lower legFibula is attachment site; does not bear weight or help form knee jointFibrous membrane between the two</p></li><li><p>Bones of ankle and footSeven tarsals; talus articulates with tibia and fibulaStanding, most weight is supported by calcaneusMuscles attached to calcaneus by Achilles tendonMetatarsal bones carry the rest</p></li><li><p>Arches of the footLongitudinal archBegins at calcaneus, extends to heads of metatarsalsTransverse archFormed by tarsals and bases of metatarsalsNormally ball of foot carries 40% of weight and heel 60%</p></li><li><p>Bone and joint disordersBone structure and remodeling is affected by:Age (osteopoenia)Physical stressHormone levelsRates of calcium and phosphate absorption and excretionGenetic and environmental factors</p></li><li><p>Diagnosing skeletal disordersLimitation of movementJoint involvement (mono-or polyarthritic?)InflammationSounds (bony crepitus)- grating soundsAbnormal bone deposits around fractures or jointsAbnormal posture</p></li><li><p>Congenital disordersOsteogenesis imperfecta- lack of bone collagen fibersMarfans syndrome- connective tissue disorder affects heart as wellAchondroplasia-epiphyseal plates are replaced by boneClubfoot(congenital talipes equinovarus) abnormal muscle developmentCleft palateSpina bifida</p></li><li><p>infectionsOsteomyelitis usually caused by S. aureusPagets disease apparently caused by virus</p></li><li><p>Malnutrition and bone disordersscurvyrickets</p></li><li><p>Secondary disorders can also affect skeletonEndocrine (giantism)Autoimmune (rheumatoid arthitis)Gout (digestive)</p><p>How do joints faciliate bone movement?</p></li></ul>


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