Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton. The Appendicular Skeleton Figure 8–1.

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton
  • Slide 2
  • The Appendicular Skeleton Figure 81
  • Slide 3
  • The Appendicular Skeleton Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles
  • Slide 4
  • The Pectoral Girdle Figure 82a
  • Slide 5
  • The Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement
  • Slide 6
  • The Pectoral Girdle Consists of: 2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium
  • Slide 7
  • The Clavicles Figure 82b, c
  • Slide 8
  • The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)
  • Slide 9
  • The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and collarbone
  • Slide 10
  • The Scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa Figure 83a
  • Slide 11
  • Structures of the Scapula Posterior surface Figure 83c
  • Slide 12
  • The Upper Limbs Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus
  • Slide 13
  • The Humerus Figure 84
  • Slide 14
  • The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone Articulates with the pectoral girdle
  • Slide 15
  • The Forearm Figure 85
  • Slide 16
  • The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones: ulna (medial) radius (lateral)
  • Slide 17
  • Ulna: The Olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus
  • Slide 18
  • The Wrist Figure 86
  • Slide 19
  • The Wrist 8 carpal bones: 4 proximal carpal bones 4 distal carpal bones allow wrist to bend and twist
  • Slide 20
  • Metacarpal Bones The 5 long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges
  • Slide 21
  • Phalanges of the Hands Pollex (thumb): 2 phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers: 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)
  • Slide 22
  • The Pelvic Girdle Figure 87
  • Slide 23
  • The Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae) Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis
  • Slide 24
  • Os Coxae Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium (articulates with sacrum) ischium pubis
  • Slide 25
  • The Acetabulum Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the os coxae Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)
  • Slide 26
  • The Pelvis Figure 88
  • Slide 27
  • The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae
  • Slide 28
  • Divisions of the Pelvis Figure 89
  • Slide 29
  • Divisions of the Pelvis True pelvis: encloses pelvic cavity False pelvis: blades of ilium above arcuate line
  • Slide 30
  • The True Pelvis Pelvic brim: upper edge of true pelvis encloses pelvic inlet
  • Slide 31
  • Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Figure 810
  • Slide 32
  • Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Female pelvis: smoother lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments
  • Slide 33
  • Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards
  • Slide 34
  • The Lower Limbs Functions: weight bearing motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg
  • Slide 35
  • Bones of the Lower Limbs Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)
  • Slide 36
  • The Femur The longest, heaviest bone Figure 811
  • Slide 37
  • The Patella Figure 812
  • Slide 38
  • The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament
  • Slide 39
  • The Tibia Figure 813
  • Slide 40
  • The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula
  • Slide 41
  • The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia
  • Slide 42
  • The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones Figure 814a
  • Slide 43
  • Bones of the Ankle Talus: carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon Cuboid bone: articulates with calcaneus
  • Slide 44
  • Feet: Metatarsal Bones 5 long bones of foot Numbered IV, medial to lateral Articulate with toes
  • Slide 45
  • Feet: Phalanges Phalanges: bones of the toes Hallux: big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)
  • Slide 46
  • Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another Figure 814b
  • Slide 47
  • Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics: muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) body size
  • Slide 48
  • Male and Female Skeletons Table 81

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