Chapter 7b appendicular skeleton

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<ul><li> 1. PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of KentuckyThe Skeleton 7bPart B - AppendicularHuman Anatomy &amp; Physiology, Sixth EditionElaine N. MariebCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings</li></ul> <p> 2. The Upper Limb The upper limb consists of the arm (brachium),forearm (antebrachium), and hand Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework ofeach upper limbCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. Arm The humerus is the sole bone of the arm It articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, andthe radius and ulna at the elbowCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4. Arm Major markings Proximal humerus includes the head, anatomical andsurgical necks, greater and lesser tubercles, and theintertubercular groove Distal humerus includes the capitulum, trochlea, medial andlateral epicondyles, and the coronoid and olecranon fossae Medial portion includes the radial groove and the deltoidprocessCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5. Humerus of the ArmCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.23 6. Forearm The bones of the forearm are the radius and ulna They articulate proximally with the humerus anddistally with the wrist bones They also articulate with each other proximally anddistally at small radioulnar jointsCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 7. Ulna The ulna lies medially in the forearm and is slightlylonger than the radius Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with thehumerus Its major markings include the olecranon, coronoidprocess, trochlear notch, radial notch, and the styloidprocessCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 8. Radius The radius lies opposite (lateral to) the ulna and isthin at its proximal end, widened distally The superior surface of the head articulates with thecapitulum of the humerus Medially, the head articulates with the radial notchof the ulna Major markings include the radial tuberosity, ulnarnotch, and styloid processCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 9. Radius and UlnaCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.24 10. Carpus (Wrist)Consists of eight bones Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate Some lovers try positions that they can handleCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 11. Metacarpus (Palm) Five numbered (1-5) metacarpal bones radiate fromthe wrist to form the palmCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 12. Phalanges (Fingers) Each hand contains 14 miniature long bones calledphalanges Fingers (digits) are numbered 1-5, beginning withthe thumb (pollex) Each finger (except the thumb) has three phalanges distal, middle, and proximal The thumb has no middle phalanxCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 13. HandCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.26a 14. Pelvic Girdle (Hip)The hip is formed by a pair of hip bones (os coxae, or coxal)Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones formthe bony pelvisThe pelvis: Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with thestrongest ligaments of the body Transmits weight of the upper body to the lower limbs Supports the visceral organs of the pelvisCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 15. Pelvic Girdle (Hip)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.27a 16. Ilium The ilium is a large flaring bone that forms thesuperior region of the coxal bone It consists of a body and a superior winglike portioncalled the ala Major markings include the iliac crests, fourspines, greater sciatic notch, iliac fossa, and thepelvic brimCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 17. Ischium The ischium forms the posteroinferior part of thehip bone The thick body articulates with the ilium, and thethinner ramus articulates with the pubis Major markings include the ischial spine, lessersciatic notch, and the ischial tuberosityCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 18. Pubis The pubic bone forms the anterior portion of the hipbone It articulates with the ischium and the ilium Major markings include superior and inferiorrami, the pubic crest, pubic symphysis, andobturator foramen (along with ilium and ischium)Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 19. Pubis: Lateral ViewCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.27b 20. Comparison of Male and Female PelvicStructureFemale pelvis Tilted forward, adapted for childbearing True pelvis defines birth canal Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and hasgreater capacityCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 21. Comparison of Male and Female PelvicStructureMale pelvis Tilted less forward Adapted for support of heavier male build andstronger muscles Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deepCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 22. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsImage from Table 7.4Comparison of Male and Female PelvicStructure 23. The Lower Limb The three segments of the lower limb are the thigh,leg, and footCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 24. Femur The sole bone of the thigh is the femur, the largestand strongest bone in the body It articulates proximally with the hip and distallywith the tibia and fibula Major markings include the head, greater and lessertrochanters, lateral and medial condyles andepicondyles, linea aspera, patellar surface, and theintercondylar notchCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 25. FemurCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.28b 26. Leg The tibia and fibula form the skeleton of the leg They articulate with the femur proximally and withthe ankle bones distallyCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 27. Tibia Receives the weight of the body from the femur andtransmits it to the foot Major markings include medial and lateralcondyles, intercondylar eminence, the tibialtuberosity, anterior crest, medial malleolusCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 28. Tibia and FibulaCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.29 29. Fibula Stick-like bone with slightly expanded ends locatedlaterally to the tibia Major markings include the head and lateralmalleolusCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 30. Foot The skeleton of thefoot includes thetarsus, metatarsus,and the phalanges(toes) The foot supportsbody weight andacts as a lever topropel the bodyforward in walkingand runningCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.31a 31. TarsusCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.31b, c 32. Calcaneus Forms the heel of the foot Carries the talus on its superior surface Point of attachment for the calcaneal (Achilles)tendon of the calf musclesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 33. Metatarsus and PhalangesMetatarsals Five (1-5) long bones that articulate with theproximal phalangesPhalanges bones of the toes Each digit has three phalanges except the big toe,which has no middle phalanxCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 34. Metatarsus and PhalangesCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.31a 35. Arches of the FootThe foot has three arches maintained by interlocking footbones and strong ligaments.Arches allow the foot to hold up weight.The arches are: Lateral longitudinal cuboid is keystone of this arch Medial longitudinal talus is keystone of this arch Transverse runs obliquely from one side of the foot to theotherCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 36. Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull At birth, fetal skull bones are incomplete andconnected by fontanelsFontanels Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes betweenfetal skull bones The four fontanels are anterior, posterior, mastoid,and sphenoidCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 37. Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull Skull bones such asthe mandible andmaxilla are unfusedCopyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFigure 7.33 </p>