Ex. 9: Appendicular skeleton

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This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test . Ex . 9 (Appendicular skeleton ) Ex . 10 (Fetal skeleton) Ex . 11 (Articulations and body movements ) by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; donalds@utm.edu. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton) Ex. 11 (Articulations and body movements)

by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; donalds@utm.edu1Ex. 9: Appendicular skeleton2Required bones and markings are highlighted in 3 different colors--1. Individual bones in green3. Depressions, passages, and cavities in red (fissure, foramen, fossa, sinus, etc.)2. Articulations, extensions, and projections in yellow (condyle, crest, facet, process, etc.)3

Superior angleAcromionSpineAcromionInferior angleThe right scapula;Anterior viewThe right scapula; Posterior viewSuprascapularnotchCoracoidprocessGlenoidCavity (Fossa)Anterior surfaceLateralborderMedialborderSuperiorborderSupraspinousfossaLateralanglePosterior surfaceRight vs. Left--In order to determine if a scapula is right or left, orient it so the glenoid cavity (articulating surface) faces laterally (outward) and the spine is posterior (toward back) and superior (upper). The coracoid process should be anterior and superior. The spine points at 2 oclock (Right side of the clock) for the right scapula, and at 10 oclock (Left side of the clock) for the left scapula.4

5Practice 01Name the bone above: _________; left or right side of body? ________;Right scapula

Acromial (lateral) endSternal endRight vs. Left-- Orient the clavicle so the smooth (no grooves and ridges) superior surface faces up. Then, the rounded sternal (medial) end should face medially while the broad and flat acromial (lateral) end faces laterally. Finally, the medial half of the clavicle should bulge OUT (convex anteriorly) first followed by its lateral half bulges IN (concave posteriorly).Is the above clavicle from the left or right side of the body?6Right6Right clavicle

A right scapula or left scapula (as shown below)?A right clavicle or left clavicle (as shown above)?7Practice 02Right scapula and left clavicleRight scapula and left clavicle7

CapitulumHeadTrochleaHumerus; anterior viewHumerus; posterior viewGreatertubercleLessertubercleIntertubercularsulcusDeltoidtuberosityCoronoidfossaRadialfossaLateralepicondyleSurgicalneckGreatertubercleAnatomicalneckNutrientforamenDeltoidtuberosityMedialsupracondylarridgeMedialepicondyleLateralsupracondylarridgeLateralepicondyleOlecranonfossa8

Name the bone above. ____________9Practice 03

Right vs. Left-- First orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Then you will need to determine the anterior vs. posterior side. On the humerus, look for the deep olecranon fossa on the posterior side (where the olecranon process of the ulna fits in when the elbow is straightened). The specimen below is from the right side.10

Olecranon (process)Olecranon (process)(a) Anterior view(b) Posterior viewArticular facetsUlnaRadiusUlnar tuberosityCoronoid processTrochlear notchRadial notchof ulnaHead ofradiusNeck ofradiusRadialtuberosityStyloidprocessInterosseousbordersInterosseousmembraneUlnar notchof radiusHead of ulnaStyloid processStyloidprocessHead ofradiusNeck ofradius11

(a) Anterior view(b) Posterior viewPractice 0412

IIIIIIIVVDistal phalanx IIMiddle phalanx IIProximal phalanx IIHeadBodyBaseHamulus of hamateHamatePisiformTriquetrumLunateCapitateTrapezoidTrapeziumBodyHeadScaphoidBasePhalanges (fingers)Key to carpal bonesDistal rowProximal rowDistalphalanx IProximalphalanx IFirstmetacarpalCarpalbonesMetacarpals (palms) I-VCarpals (wrist)bonesThe right wrist and hand, anterior (palmar, ventral) viewPollexMnemonic for carpal bones Sally Left The Party (proximal row); To Take Charlie Home (distal row)13

Key to carpal bonesDistal rowProximal rowThe right wrist and hand, anterior (palmar, ventral) view14Practice 05

IliumIschiumCoccyxBodyIschial ramusPubis The pelvis (two coxal/hip bones and the sacrum); anterosuperior viewPubic symphysisAcetabulum Ischial spinePelvic inletSacroiliac jointBodySuperior ramusInferior ramusIliaccrestIliacfossaAnteriorsuperioriliac spineAnterior inferioriliac spineBase ofsacrumPelvic surfaceof sacrumInterpubicdiscObturatorforamenEach coxal/hip bone is formed by three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis.15Pubic crest

ID this bone

The pelvis (two coxal/hip bones and the sacrum); anterosuperior viewID this bone

16Practice 06

MaleFemale50-6080-90Pubic archObturator foramenPelvic inletPelvic brim17

A right or left hip bone (as shown)?Right hip bone18Practice 07Right vs. Left-- In order to determine if a hip bone is right or left, place the bone on yourself with the iliac crest superior, hold it with acetabulum facing laterally (outward), and the obturator foramen inferior (down). Now all you need to do is determine which side is anterior vs. posterior, which can be done by looking for the rough pubic symphysis (anterior) that is at the midline to meet its fellow hip bone of the other side.

IliumIschiumPubisGreater sciatic notchIschial spineIschial tuberosityBody of ischiumLesser sciatic notchIliac crestBody of iliumBody of pubisInferior gluteal linePosterior gluteal linePosterior superioriliac spinePosterior inferioriliac spineAcetabulumIschial ramusAnterior gluteallineAnterior superioriliac spineAnterior inferioriliac spineSuperior ramusof pubisInferior ramusof pubisObturator foramenRight coxal bone, lateral view19

IliumIschiumPubisRight coxal bone, lateral view20Practice 08

Greater sciatic notchIliac crestArcuate lineIschial spineIliac fossaAnterior superioriliac spineAnterior inferioriliac spineLocation ofpubic symphysisPosterior superioriliac spineAuricular surfacePosterior inferioriliac spineObturator foramenIschial ramus21Pubic crestRight coxal bone, medial view

22Right coxal bone, medial viewPractice 09

Greater trochanterIntertrochanteric lineLateral epicondylePatellar surface(b) Posterior viewLateral epicondyleMedial supracondylar lineLateral condyleLinea asperaIntertrochanteric crestGluteal tuberosityGreater trochanterHeadFovea capitisNeckLesser trochanterSpiral lineShaftMedial epicondylePopliteal surfaceMedial condyleIntercondylar fossaPatellaArticular facetsApex of patellaLateral supracondylarline(a) Anterior view23

Posterior viewRight vs. Left-- In order to distinguish right from left, first orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Then you will need to determine the anterior vs. posterior side. On the femur, look for the patellar surface, which is anterior. Also note how the articulating surfaces of the condyles extends far back on the posterior side (since the knee bends back but not forward). The specimen below is from the right side.ID the bone

Practice 1024

Lateral condyleApexHead of fibulaIntercondylar eminenceLateral surfaceDistal tibiofibular jointLateral malleolusFibulaAnterior border (crest)Lateral malleolus(b) Posterior viewProximal tibiofibularjointTibiaMedial malleolusMedialcondyleTibialtuberosityInterosseousmembrane(a) Anterior view25Mnemonic for location of tibia and fibula:The fibuLA is LAteral.

Anterior viewRight vs. Left-- You need to tell right from left for the tibia. To do so, first orient the tibia so that the larger flatter end is superior (up). The anterior border (crest or shin) should of course be anterior (front). Finally, the medial side can be determined by the medial malleolus (remember that the malleoli bracket the ankle and since the tibia is the medial bone of the lower limb, its malleolus must be medial). A right tibia is shown below.Practice 1126

Key to tarsal bonesDistal groupProximal groupDistal phalanx IProximal phalanx IMetatarsalMedial cuneiformIntermediate cuneiformLateral cuneiformNavicularTalusSuperior (dorsal) viewCalcaneusCuboidVIVIIIIIITrochlear surfaceof talusTuberosity of calcaneusProximalphalanx VMiddlephalanx VDistalphalanx VTarsal bonesHalluxMnemonic for tarsal bones CAn TALented NAVal MEDIcs INTERest LAzy CUBscouts?27

Key to tarsal bonesDistal groupProximal groupSuperior (dorsal) viewPractice 1228Ex. 10: Fetal skeleton29

Parietal boneTemporal boneOccipital boneMaxillaMandible(a) Lateral viewCoronalsutureFrontalboneSphenoidfontanelNasalboneZygomaticboneSphenoidboneLambdoidsutureSquamoussutureMastoidfontanel30

Metopic sutureAnterior fontanelSagittal suturePosterior (occipital) fontanel(b) Superior viewParietalbone31

(b) Superior view(a) Lateral view32Practice 13Ex. 11: Articulations and body movements33Required structures are highlighted.

PeriosteumLigamentBoneProximalphalanxJoint cavitycontainingsynovial fluidFibrouscapsuleArticularcartilagesJointcapsuleSynovialmembraneMiddlephalanx34

FemurPatellar surfaceMedial condyleFibulaTibiaMedial meniscus(a) Anterior viewLateralcondyleFibularcollateralligamentLateralmeniscusTransverseligamentPosterior cruciateligamentAnterior cruciateligamentTibial collateralligamentPatellar ligament(cut)35

(a) Anterior view36Practice 14

(b) Posterior viewFemurFibulaTibiaLateral meniscusAnterior cruciateligamentFibular collateralligamentArticular cartilageof tibiaMedialcondyleTibialcollateralligamentMedialmeniscusPosteriorcruciateligament37

FemurMeniscusTibiaJoint cavityInfrapatellar fat padSynovial membranePatellar ligamentPatellaPrepatellar bursaArticular cartilageJoint capsule(c) Sagittal sectionBursa under lateralhead of gastrocnemiusQuadricepsfemorisQuadricepsfemoris tendonSuprapatellarbursaSuperficialinfrapatellar bursaDeepinfrapatellar bursa38

Medial meniscusLateral meniscus(d) Superior view of tibia and menisciPosterior cruciateligamentSynovialmembraneMedial condyleof tibiaAnterior cruciateligamentLateral condyleof tibia39

Head of humerusScapulaBall-and-socket joints Features: Smooth hemispherical head fits within a cuplike depressionExamples: (shoulder) head of humerus into glenoid cavity of scapula (shown below)(hip) head of femur into acetabulum of hip bone40

PhalanxMetacarpal bone2. Condylar joints Features: Oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on the next Examples:radiocarpal joint of the wrist metacarpophalangeal joints at the bases of the fingers (shown below)41

TrapeziumMetacarpal bone3. Saddle joints Features: Each articular surface is shaped like a saddle, concave in one direction and convex in the other bone (like a sitting rider)Example:trapeziometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb (as shown below)42

Carpal bones4. Gliding (plane) jointsFeatures: Flat articular surfaces in which bones slide over each otherExamples: between the carpal bones of the wrist (shown below) the tarsal bones of the ankle articular processes of the vertebrae43

HumerusUlna5. Hinge jointsFeatures: One bone with convex surface that fits into a concave depression on other boneExamples:ulna and humerus at elbow joint (trochlea of the humerus fits into the trochlear notch of the ulna) (shown below)femur and tibia at knee joint (tibiofemoral)44

UlnaRadius6. Pivot jointsFeatures: One bone rotates on its longitudinal axis relative to the otherExamples:proximal radioulnar joint; the radius pivots during pronation and supination (as shown below)atlantoaxial joint (dens of axis to atlas)45

(a)ExtensionFlexion(b)ExtensionFlexionHyperextension(c)(d)FlexionKneeflexionExtensionHipflexionHyperextension46

(a) Abduction(b) AdductionIdentify the body movements below.47Practice 15

(b) Lateral (external) rotation(a) Medial (internal) rotationIdentify the body movements below.48Practice 16

Identify the body movements below.Circumduction49Practice 17

(a) Supination(b) PronationIdentify the body movements below.50Practice 18

DorsiflexionZeroposition(c) Eversion(b) InversionPlantar flexion(a) Flexion of ankleIdentify the body movements below.51Practice 19Models with KEYS52

KEY CARD (Synovial joint of left knee)-- ALL are required terminologies. Educational + Scientific Products (ESP) in England (ZJY-940-J)1. (in blue) Articular cartilage; 2. (in white)-- Synovial membrane3. Femur; 4. Tibia5. Medial meniscus; 6. Lateral meniscus7. (in green)-- Fibrous capsule (outside synovial membrane; together synovial membrane and fibrous capsule are called joint capsule)8. (in red)-- Tibial collateral ligament9. Sponge (cancellous) bone showing patterning of the bony trabeculae10. Marrow cavity5353

1. Femur; 2a. Lateral condyle of femur; 2b. Medial condyle of femur; 3. Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament; 4a. Lateral meniscus; 4b. Medial meniscus; 5. Tibial (medial) collateral ligament; 6. Anterior cruciate ligament; 8. Patellar ligament; 9. Tibia; 10. Fibula; 11. Tendon of the quadriceps muscle; 12. location of patella (covered by tendon)Knee (Anterior view)All are required terminologies.54

Knee (Posterior view) All are required terminologies1. Femur; 2a. Medial condyle of femur; 2b. Lateral condyle of femur; 3. Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament; 4a. Lateral meniscus; 4b. Medial meniscus; 5. Tibial (medial) collateral ligament; 9. Tibia; 10. Fibula; 13a. Medial articular cartilage of tibia; 13b. Lateral articular cartilage of tibia; 14. Posterior cruciate ligament55

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