The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

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<p>The Appendicular Skeleton</p> <p>The Appendicular SkeletonExercise 11An Introduction to the Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton126 bonesAllows us to move and manipulate objectsIncludes all bones besides axial skeletonThe limbs The supportive girdles </p> <p>Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings</p> <p>2</p> <p>The Pectoral GirdleAlso called the shoulder girdleConnects the arms to the body Positions the shouldersProvides a base for arm movementConsists ofTwo clavicles Two scapulaeCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings</p> <p>5</p> <p>Upper LimbsThe upper limbs consist of the arms, forearms, wrists, and handsHumorousUlna and radiusCarpels, metacarpals, and phalanges</p> <p>Pelvis GirdleMade up of two hip bones (coxal bones)Strong to bear body weight, stress of movementPart of the pelvisCoxal bonesMade up of three fused bonesIlium (articulates with sacrum)IschiumPubis</p> <p>Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female PelvisFemale pelvisSmoother and lighterLess prominent muscle and ligament attachmentsPelvis modifications for Childbearingenlarged pelvic outletbroad pubic angle (&gt;100)less curvature of sacrum and coccyxwide, circular pelvic inletbroad, low pelvisilia project laterally, not upwards </p> <p>Bones of the lower limbFunctions of the lower limbsWeight bearingMotionBones of the Lower LimbsFemur (thigh)Patella (kneecap)Tibia and fibula (leg)Tarsals (ankle)Metatarsals (foot)Phalanges (toes)</p> <p>The AnkleBones of the ankleNavicular:articulates with talus and three cuneiform bonesMedial cuneiformIntermediate cuneiformLateral cuneiform</p> <p>Studying the SkeletonReveals characteristicsMuscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass)Medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures)Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)Body size</p>