Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

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<ul><li> 1. The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 2. Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 3. Scapula (shoulder blade) <ul><li>Glenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>Acromion </li></ul><ul><li>Acromioclavicular joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior and Superior Angles </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of biceps brachii muscle: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Coracoid Process </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Supraglenoid tubercle </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 4. The Arm <ul><li>Synonym: Upper limb </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Upper Arm = Brachium </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Forearm = Antebrachium </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Humerus, Radius and Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Carpus (wrist) </li></ul><ul><li>Hand (manus) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 5. Humerus <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Tubercles </li></ul><ul><li>Intertubercular Sulcus </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Biceps tendon </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Coronoid Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlea </li></ul><ul><li>Medial and Lateral Epicondyles </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 6. Radius Ulna <ul><li>Head, neck, shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of biceps brachii: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Radial Tuberosity </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Radial Styloid Process </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlear notch </li></ul><ul><li>Coronoid Process </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar Styloid Process </li></ul>Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna) Note how the two bones can cross Funny bone www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 7. Carpus = Wrist <ul><li>Four Proximal </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Four Distal </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate </li></ul></li></ul>Scaphoid is frequently fractured www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 8. Hand = Manus <ul><li>Five metacarpal bones (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Five fingers </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Labeled 1-5 </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Thumb = Pollex = digit 1 </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Two phalangeal bones </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5 </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Three phalangeal bones </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Proximal, middle, distal </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 9. The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapula </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Supports the Legs </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Pelvis (os coxae) </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 10. Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone <ul><li>Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis (innominate bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior and posterior iliac spines meet to form the iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches </li></ul><ul><li>Ischial Tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Acetabular fossa </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Obturator Foramen </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 11. More Pelvis <ul><li>Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Stretches at childbirth (Relaxin) </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 12. The leg <ul><li>AKA Lower Limb </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia/fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Foot </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 13. Femur <ul><li>Head and fovea capitus </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Articulate with pelvis </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Neck (fx pelvis) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Trochanters </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles </li></ul><ul><li>Intercondylar fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Patellar Surface </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 14. Patella = knee cap <ul><li>Sesamoid Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps group of muscles </li></ul> Skyline MRI of patella www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 15. Tibia = shin bone <ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Intercondylar eminence </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Tibial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior articular surface </li></ul><ul><li>Medial malleolus </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li></ul></li></ul>Interosseous Membrane www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 16. Fibula <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral malleolus </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Not weight bearing </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Frequent fx </li></ul></li></ul>Interosseous Membrane www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 17. Tarsus (7 bones) Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate <ul><li>Navicular </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboid </li></ul><ul><li>Cunieform (3) </li></ul>Calcaneus Talus www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 18. Foot <ul><li>Metatarsals (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (3 per toe except big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Arches </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Medial and lateral </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Arch </li></ul>Dancers fx Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 19. Bones of the Skull www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 20. Bones of the Skull www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 21. Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium vs. Facial Bones www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 22. Bones of the Calvarium <ul><li>Frontal (forehead) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Anterior fossa of base of skull </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Frontal Crests </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>More prominent in male </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Frontal sinuses </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Parietal (2) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sutures </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Foramen Magnum </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Occipital Condyles articulate with C 1 </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Occipital Crest </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 23. Bones of the Calvarium, contd <ul><li>Temporal (4 parts): </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Squamous (very thin), </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Mastoid (means breast-like) process </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Small sinus </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Petrous </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Houses inner ear </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Acoustic meatus </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Jugular foramen </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Zygomatic process </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Styloid Process </li></ul></li></ul> In one of these, the squamosal section of the temporal bone had been crushed, and another showed a jagged hole through the parietal bone. The Bounty Trilogy, 1788 www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 24. Bones of the Calvarium floor <ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sella turcica houses pituitary gland </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Ethmoid (sieve) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Cribriform plate for olfactory nerve </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Crista galli </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Part of nasal septum </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Petrous part </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Foramen magnum </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 25. Facial bones <ul><li>Maxilla (2) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Alveolar margin for teeth </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Maxillary sinus </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Anterior portion of hard palate </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Palatine (2) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Posterior aspect of hard palate </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Nasal (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Nasal conchae (2) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Will be covered in Respiratory System </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 26. Facial bones, contd <ul><li>Zygomatic (2) AKA cheek bones </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Zygomatic process of temporal bone </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Lacrimal (2) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Lacrimal sac </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Vomer </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Part of nasal septum </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 27. Facial bones, contd <ul><li>Mandible </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Mandibular condyles (TMJ) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Mandibular notch </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Coronoid process </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Ramus </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Angle </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 28. www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 29. Sutures and Fontanels <ul><li>Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Lambdoidalbetw occipital and parietal </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>(mid) Saggital --- betw parietals </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Coronal betw frontal and parietals </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Squamous betw parietals and temporals </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Anterior and Posterior Fontanels </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Soft spot of Newborn </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 30. Paranasal Sinuses Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Maxillary Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal cavity www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 31. Hyoid Bone <ul><li>Inferior to the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Superior to the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Supports many cervical muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the larynx </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 32. The Vertebral Column <ul><li>7 Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>12 Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>5 Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sacral (fused) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Coccygeal (usually) </li></ul><ul><li>Curvatures: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 33. A Typical Vertebra Body and intervertebral disks Spinous Process Intervertebral Foramina Articular processes/facets Superior Inferior Vertebral (neural) Arch Pedicles and Laminae Vertebral Canal/foramen www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 34. Cervical Vertebrae (C 1 C 7 ) <ul><li>C 1 = Atlas (no body) </li></ul><ul><li>C 1 -C 2 site of rotation </li></ul><ul><li>C 2 = Axis (dens) </li></ul><ul><li>C 3 - C 6 are similar </li></ul><ul><li>Note the transverse foramina in each cervical vertebra </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Vertebral Artery/Vein </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>C 7 has the vertebra prominens </li></ul>C 1 www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 35. Thoracic Vertebrae (T 1 - T 12 ) Large Spinous Processes Articulations for ribs, both superior and inferior www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 36. Lumbar Vertebrae (L 1 - L 5 ) <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous Process </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina </li></ul><ul><li>Articular Facets </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Process </li></ul><ul><li>Pedicle </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 37. Intervertebral Articulation www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 38. Intervertebral Disk <ul><li>Nucleus Pulposus </li></ul><ul><li>Annulus Fibrosus </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></li></ul>See Fig. 8-9 www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 39. Damage to the Intervertebral Discs www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 40. The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapula </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Supports the Legs </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Pelvis </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Ilium, ischium, pubic bone </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 41. www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 42. Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (3-5 fused) <ul><li>Sacroiliac joint </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral Foramina </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 43. Thoracic (Rib) Cage <ul><li>Protection and muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs 12 pairs </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1 - 7 are true ribs, with attachment to the sternum </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>8 - 12 attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Costal Cartilages </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> <li> 44. Thoracic (Rib) Cage, contd <ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Clavicular Notch </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Body </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Xiphoid </li></ul></li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com </li> </ul>

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