SKELETAL SYSTEM Bone & Tissue Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Articulations.

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<ul><li><p>SKELETALSYSTEMBone &amp; TissueAxial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonArticulations</p></li><li><p>Bone PhysiologyTypes of Bone :Long when length is greater than width, arms and legs, act as levers pulled by musclesShort about equal length, width, and thickness but irregularly shaped, wrist and ankle, limited movement, completely covered in ligamentFlat actually thin or curved more often than flat, ribs, scapula, sternum, and cranium, muscle attachment or protectionIrregular dont neatly fit into any other category, facial and hip bones, vertebraeSesamoid small bones embedded in certain tendons that pass over a joint (knee or wrist) , patella and pisiform carpalAccessory mostly in the feet, some in the skull (sutural bones), form when developing bones dont fuse completely,</p></li><li><p>Gross Anatomy of Long BonesDiaphysis tubular shaftEpiphysis round endEpiphyseal growth plateMarrow :Yellow mostly adiposeRed hemopoeisis (Blood cell creation)Endosteum lines the trabeculae (Periosteum lines the outside of compact bone</p></li><li><p>Compact/Spongy Bone Tissue</p><p>Haversian systemOsteon (entire section)Lamellae- ringsCentral canal- contains blood vesselsPerforating canalLacunae- hole containing bone cellCanaliculi- tiny canalCancellous bone (trabeculae- bands or columns of connective tissue</p></li><li><p>Bone Cells (define)Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) stem cell, highly mitotic, found deep in the periosteum and endosteum layers.Osteoblast b stands for build, these pump calcium and phosphate in and out of bone matrixOsteocyte main cell of fully developed bone, live in the lacuna and extend out through the canaliculi into the matrix, develop from osteoblast, maintain the bone homeostasisOsteoclast c stands for clear, these clear or remove calcium from the matrix, develop from white blood cellsBone-lining cells regulate mineral salts movement in and out of adult bones</p></li><li><p>Bone Growth- OSSIFICATION!!!Longitudinal- epiphyseal growth plateDiameter and fracture healing- periosteumModeling- formation of new bone layers on the exterior and simultaneous removal of bone from the interior layer Remodeling- strengthening bones under more stress and lightening bones under less stress</p></li><li><p>Physiological FunctionsCalcium enzyme function, membrane permeability, muscle contraction, nerve impulses, blood clotting, bone formationPhosphate acid / base balanceBlood Cells hemopoietic tissue, red bone marrow is the site of the bodys main blood cell productionEffects of hormones &amp; nutrition PTH (parathyroid hormone) and CT(calcitonin) impact bone formationEffects of aging old = loss the ability to use calcium- WHAT then is the DESTINY of the bones????</p></li><li><p>Axial SkeletonSkull:SuturesFontanels soft spot on top of infant headBones:FrontalParietalOccipitalTemporalSphenoidEthmoid</p></li><li><p> Facial bones:MandibleMaxillaNasalZygomaticOther skull bones:Hyoid- connects to tongueEAR BONESIncusMalleusStapes</p></li><li><p> Vertebral Column:Cervical, neck (C1-C7)-Atlas C1 (#6) yes motionAxis C2 (#7) no motion3-6 are typicalVertebra prominins C7Thoracic, chest (T1-T12) articulate with ribsLumbar, back (L1-L5)- largest, strongest, back muscles attachSacrum (5 fused vertebrae)-give strength and stability to pelvisCoccyx (4 fused vertebrae)-vestige of embryonic tail</p></li><li><p>Typical VertebraeFunctions:BodyVertebral arch:PediclesLaminae- the curve of the arch(houses the spinal cord!)Vertebral foramenVertebral processes:Spinous processTransverse processArticular processes (superior &amp; inferior)Intervertebral disk- fibrocartilage = flexible supportPrimary curve thoracic and sacral curves appear before birthSecondary curve cervical and lumbar curves after birth</p></li><li><p> The Thorax:12 thoracic vertebrae ( posterior)12 pairs of ribs (anterior):1-7 true ribs8-10 false ribs11 &amp; 12 floating ribs12 costal cartilagesSternum:ManubriumBodyXiphoid processIntercostal space</p></li><li><p>Appendicular SkeletonUpper Extremities (limbs, 64 bones):Pectoral Girdle (all bones X 2):Clavicle (collar bone) - most often broken boneSternoclavicular joint (medial)Acromioclavicular joint (lateral)2. Scapula (shoulder blade)3. Humerous (upper arm)Ulna (little finger side): larger of the two, medial boneRadius (thumb side): lateral bone</p></li><li><p> Carpal bones (8 total): WristMetacarpals (5 bones):Palm of handPhalanges (14 bones):Metacarpophalangeal joint (MP joint, knuckles):Thumb: I2 phalangesProximal and distal interphalangeal joint (IP joint)Fingers: II IV3 phalanges per fingerProximal, middle, and distalProximal interphalangeal joint (PIP joint) Distal interphalangeal joint (DIP joint)</p></li><li><p> Lower Extremities (legs, 62 bones):Pelvic Girdle (limbs, 62 bones): Ossa coxaeHip bone- really 3 (6) bones fused together, transfers weight to femur, all 3 form the ball &amp; socket jointIlium superior lateral prominence of hipIschium inferior, strongest to bear weight when seatedPubis anterior, joined by the symphysis pubisFemur (thigh 2) longest, strongest, heaviest bonePatella (knee cap 2) sesamoid bone in the quadricep femoris tendon, prevents wearing across jointFibula (2)- smaller of the two bones in lower leg, adds strength to ankleTibia (shin 2)- larger of two bones in lower leg, supports body weightTarsals (ankle 14)- includes heelbone (calcaneus), raises body, forward thrust for walking and runningMetatarsals (sole 10)- improves stability, absorbs shockPhalanges (toes 28) provides stability </p></li><li><p>ArticulationsTypes of jointsFibrous: lack a joint cavity, tightly joined by fibrous connective tissue, generally immovable in adults Sutures skull onlySyndesmoses collagenous fibers hold two bones close together but not touching (ulna/radius moveable, tibia/fibula not much movement allowed)Gomphoses - fibrous joint made up of a peg in a socket (teeth)</p></li><li><p> Cartilaginous: no joint cavity, bones united by a plate of hyaline cartilageSynchondroses permit growth not movement, temporary joint formed by the epiphyseal growth plate of long bonesSymphyses fibrocartilaginous disks to absorb shock (vertebrae and pubic symphysis)</p></li><li><p> Synovial: articular cartilage surrounded by collaginous fibers and supported by ligaments, allow for the greatest range of motionHingePivotCondyloidGlidingSaddleBall and Socket </p></li><li><p>Hinge JointsUniaxial onlyVery strong collateral ligamentsPermit flexion and extensionElbow, finger, knee, and ankle</p></li><li><p>Pivot JointsUniaxialRotates around a central axisAtlantoaxial joint between the atlas and axis vertebrae and the radius/ulna articulationhttp://davisplus.fadavis.com/wilkinson/animations.cfm</p></li><li><p>Condyloid JointsBiaxialMetacarpophalangeal (knuckles) joints except the thumbFlexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction.</p></li><li><p>Gliding JointsAlmost always smallFlat articular surfaces so one bone slides on another bone with minimal axis of rotation, if anyAdjacent vertebrae, carpals, and tarsals</p></li><li><p>Saddle JointsMultiaxial movement in 3 or more directions, abduction/adduction, opposition and repositionOpposing articular surfaces resemble saddles, both have concave and convex surfacesCarpometacarpal joint of thumb</p></li><li><p>Ball and Socket JointsMultiaxial Flexion, extension, medial (internal) rotation, lateral (external) rotation, abduction, adduction, and circumductionGlobelike head of one bone fits into the cuplike concavity of the otherMost freely moving joint of all, allowing movement in almost infinite number of directionsShoulder and hip</p></li><li><p>The Knee</p></li></ul>

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