Axial Skeleton: Appendicular ?· §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular…

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<ul><li><p>Axial Skeleton: Skull, ribs, spine, and </p><p>sternum </p><p>Appendicular Skeleton: Arms, legs, scapula, </p><p>clavicle, pelvis </p></li><li><p>Provide a framework which muscles can pull, give shape and structure to the body, and support and protect internal organs </p><p>Contain mineral, such as calcium and phosphorous </p><p>Produces red blood cells, platelets, and certain types of white blood cells </p></li><li><p>Periosteum: tough membrane that contains a network of blood vessels that supply nutrients, and nerves, that signal pain </p><p>Compact bone: endures stress Haversian canal: blood </p><p>vessels run through carrying nutrients </p><p> Osteocytes: several layers of protein fibers wrapped around the Haversian Canal </p></li><li><p>Spongy Bone: connective tissue with latticework structure that consists of bony spikes arranged along points of pressure or stress, making bones both light and strong </p></li><li><p>Many bones contain a soft tissue which can be either yellow or red </p><p>Yellow Bone Marrow: Found in long bones Consists of mainly fat cells and serves as an </p><p>energy reserve Can be converted into red bone marrow and </p><p>produce blood cells when severe blood loss </p><p>Red Bone Marrow: found in spongy bone, the end of long bones, </p><p>ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis Produces red blood cells, platelets, and </p><p>certain types of white blood cells </p></li><li><p> Most bones develop from cartilage Second month of fetal development, most of the </p><p>skeleton is made of cartilage </p><p> Ossification: Process by which cartilage is slowly replaced by bone as a result of the deposition of minerals </p><p> Few bones develop directly into hard bone Skull </p></li><li><p> Movable Joints: Allow a wide range of movements and activities Hinge, ball-and-socket, pivot, and saddle, gliding joints </p><p> Semi movable Joints: Permit limited movement Hold the bones of vertebral column in place and allow the body to bend and twist </p><p> Fixed Joints Prevent movement Skull </p></li><li><p> Ligaments: Tough bands of connective tissue, hold the joint in place </p><p> Synovial fluid: helps protect the ends of bones from damage by friction </p><p> Arthritis: Rheumatoid: immune systems begins to </p><p>attack its body tissue Osteoarthritis: degenerative joints </p><p>disease in which the cartilage covering the surface of the bone becomes thinner and rougher </p></li></ul>

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