Axial Skeleton: Appendicular ?· §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular…

Download Axial Skeleton: Appendicular ?· §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular…

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Axial Skeleton: Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum Appendicular Skeleton: Arms, legs, scapula, clavicle, pelvis Provide a framework which muscles can pull, give shape and structure to the body, and support and protect internal organs Contain mineral, such as calcium and phosphorous Produces red blood cells, platelets, and certain types of white blood cells Periosteum: tough membrane that contains a network of blood vessels that supply nutrients, and nerves, that signal pain Compact bone: endures stress Haversian canal: blood vessels run through carrying nutrients Osteocytes: several layers of protein fibers wrapped around the Haversian Canal Spongy Bone: connective tissue with latticework structure that consists of bony spikes arranged along points of pressure or stress, making bones both light and strong Many bones contain a soft tissue which can be either yellow or red Yellow Bone Marrow: Found in long bones Consists of mainly fat cells and serves as an energy reserve Can be converted into red bone marrow and produce blood cells when severe blood loss Red Bone Marrow: found in spongy bone, the end of long bones, ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis Produces red blood cells, platelets, and certain types of white blood cells Most bones develop from cartilage Second month of fetal development, most of the skeleton is made of cartilage Ossification: Process by which cartilage is slowly replaced by bone as a result of the deposition of minerals Few bones develop directly into hard bone Skull Movable Joints: Allow a wide range of movements and activities Hinge, ball-and-socket, pivot, and saddle, gliding joints Semi movable Joints: Permit limited movement Hold the bones of vertebral column in place and allow the body to bend and twist Fixed Joints Prevent movement Skull Ligaments: Tough bands of connective tissue, hold the joint in place Synovial fluid: helps protect the ends of bones from damage by friction Arthritis: Rheumatoid: immune systems begins to attack its body tissue Osteoarthritis: degenerative joints disease in which the cartilage covering the surface of the bone becomes thinner and rougher

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