The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton—protects and supports the internal organs Axial skeleton—protects

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<ul><li><p>The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton</p></li><li><p>Divisions of the Skeletal SystemAxial skeletonprotects and supports the internal organsAppendicular skeletonfacilitates movementThe appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones; it includes bones of the limbs and the girdles</p></li><li><p>Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdlesAttach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeletonEach consists of 2 bones: clavicle and scapula</p></li><li><p>ClavicleCollarboneAn s-shaped bone that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum and with the scapulaOne of the most frequently fractured bones of the body</p></li><li><p>Fig. 08.02</p></li><li><p>ScapulaShoulder bladeA triangular-shaped flat bone that articulates with the clavicleThe acromion is a process of the scapula that can be felt as the high point of the shoulderThe glenoid cavity is a depression of the scapula that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint</p></li><li><p>Upper LimbsEach upper limb has 30 bones: Humerus (1)Radius (1)Ulna (1)Carpals (8) Metacarpals (5)Phalanges (14)</p></li><li><p>HumerusUpper arm boneThe longest and largest bone of the upper limbArticulates proximally with the scapula and distally at the elbow with the radius and ulna of the forearmThe head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapulaThe capitulum articulates with the head of the radius; the trochlea articulates with the ulna</p></li><li><p>Radius and UlnaLong bones of the forearmThe ulna is longer than the radius and is located on the little-finger side of the forearmThe olecranon of the ulna forms the prominence of the elbowThe radius is located on the thumb side of the forearmThe elbow joint is formed by 2 articulations:The trochlear notch of the ulna with the trochlea of the humerusThe head of the radius with the capitulum of the humerus</p></li><li><p>CarpalsThe wrist consists of 8 small bones called carpalsThese bones are arranged in two rows of four bones eachIn most carpal fractures, only the scaphoid carpal bone is broken</p></li><li><p>MetacarpalsThe palm of the hand consists of 5 long bones called metacarpalsEach of these bones consists of a base, shaft, and headThe metacarpals are numbered 1 through 5, starting with the thumbThe knuckles are the heads of the metacarpals</p></li><li><p>PhalangesThe long bones of the fingers (digits)There are 14 phalanges in each handEach phalanx consists of a base, shaft, and headThere are 2 phalanges in the thumb, or pollex, and 3 phalanges in each of the other four digits</p></li><li><p>Pelvic (Hip) GirdlesConsist of 2 hip bones, called coxal bonesThese 2 bones unite anteriorly at a joint called the pubic symphysis and posteriorly with the sacrum at the sacroiliac jointsThe 2 coxal bones and the sacrum form the pelvis; the pelvis supports the vertebral column and pelvic organs and attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeletonIn an adult, each coxal bone consists of three bones that fused together after birth:IliumIschium Pubis </p></li><li><p>Pelvic (Hip) Girdles (continued)The ilium is the largest and most superior of the three hip bone components; it articulates with the sacrum to form the sacroiliac jointThe ischium is located inferior and posterior; the pubis is located inferior and anterior; together, they surround the obturator foramen, the largest foramen of the skeletonAll three of these bones make up the acetabulum, a deep fossa that accepts the round head of the femur The two coxal bones meet anteriorly at a joint called the pubic symphysis; this joint contains a cartilage disc that gives the joint flexibilityThe pelvis of a female is wider and shallower than that of a male to allow for childbirth</p></li><li><p>Lower LimbsEach lower limb has 30 bones:Femur (1)Patella (1)Tibia (1)Fibula (1)Tarsals (7)Metatarsals (5)Phalanges (14)</p></li><li><p>FemurThigh boneLongest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the bodyIts proximal end consists of a head that articulates with the hip bone at the acetabulum; its distal end articulates with the tibia and patella</p></li><li><p>PatellaKneecapA small, triangular bone located anterior to the knee jointIt is a sesamoid bone, which develops in the tendon of the quadriceps muscleArticulates with the femur</p></li><li><p>Tibia and FibulaThe tibia is the shinbone It is the larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of the lower legAt is proximal end, the tibia articulates with the femur and fibula; at its distal end, it articulates with the fibula and the talus bone of the ankleThe fibula is the smaller bone of the lower legIt lies parallel and lateral to the tibia</p></li><li><p>TarsalsThe ankle consists of 7 bones called tarsalsThe calcaneus is the largest and strongest tarsal bone; it is located in the posterior heel part of the footThe talus is the uppermost tarsal bone; it articulates with the fibula and tibia</p></li><li><p>MetatarsalsThe main part of the foot consists of 5 long bones called metatarsalsEach of these bones consists of a base, shaft, and headThe metatarsals are numbered 1 through 5, from the medial to lateral position </p></li><li><p>PhalangesThe long bones of the toesThere are 14 phalanges on each footEach phalanx consists of a base, shaft, and headThere are 2 phalanges in the big toe, or hallux, and 3 phalanges in each of the other four digits</p></li></ul>

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