john nevin, ijc

of 27/27
John Nevin International Joint Commission The IJC, Boundary Waters Treaty and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Post on 18-Jul-2015

283 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • John Nevin International Joint Commission The IJC, Boundary Waters Treaty and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Wednesday, January 23, 2013

  • Transboundary Basins

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

    2

    Columbia River Basin

    St. Mary - Milk River Basin

    Souris River Basin

    Red River Basin

    Rainy River Basin

    The Great Lakes and Waterways

    Saint. Croix River Basin

    Missisquoi Bay Lake Champlain

  • 3 3

    Boundary Waters Treaty Negotiated in 1909

    at a time of industrialization and urbanization

    of the Great Lakes and other boundary waters

    Cleveland

    Ohio Water

    Works Plant,

    July 4, 1903

    The Hamilton

    Ontario Steel &

    Iron Company,

    1900

    Toronto, Ontario 1896

  • THE BOUNDARY WATERS TREATY (1909)

    ORIGIN border disputes over use of transboundary waters.

    PURPOSE provides the principles and mechanisms to help

    prevent and resolve disputes along

    the boundary

    The IJC was created by the Treaty and remains a key part of the US-

    Canada relationship.

    Sir George Gibbons

    More than a century of cooperation, protecting shared waters.

  • Origins of the Boundary Waters Treaty

    5

    Digging the St. Mary Canal

    Montana, 1908

    Schoellkopf Power Station

    Niagara Falls NY, 1895

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • Niagara Falls (What might have been?)

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters 6

  • Sir George Gibbons 1916 Speech

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters 7

  • SOME KEY PRINCIPLES OF THE TREATY

    Equal and similar rights to the use of boundary waters;

    Order of precedence of use sanitary/domestic, navigation, power

    generation/irrigation;

    Structures/diversion not to affect levels and flows on the other side; and,

    Must not pollute water on either side to the injury of health or property on the

    other side.

    More than a century of cooperation, protecting shared waters.

  • Equality: Parity of Power

    The High Contracting Parties shall have, each on

    its own side of the boundary,

    equal and similar rights in

    the use of the waters

    hereinbefore defined as

    boundary waters.

    Article VIII, Boundary Waters

    Treaty of 1909

    More than a century of cooperation, protecting shared waters.

  • THE COMMISSIONS STRUCTURE

    Six Commissioners (three from Canada, three from the U.S.; two of whom are co-chairs)

    A creation of the treaty, but not a creature of governments. The IJC an international organization which is a permanent, binational, objective, independent, unitary body

    Sectional offices in Ottawa and Washington DC

    Regional office in Windsor, Ontario

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • IJC Principles of Operation

    Independent commissioners serve without instruction from governments

    Complete equality between two countries

    Decisions made by consensus

    Sound science - joint fact finding

    Experts serve in personal and professional capacity

    Extensive stakeholder engagement

    Full public involvement

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • IJC Operations APPLICATIONS/ORDERS

    Rules on applications for approval of projects affecting boundary and transboundary waters

    May regulate the operations of projects, for example, water control structures at the outlets of

    lakes superior and ontario - both boundary waters

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909

    Order of Precedence

    The following order of precedence shall be observed and no use shall be permitted which tends materially to conflict with or restrain any other use

    which is given preference over it in this order of

    precedence:

    1. Uses for domestic and sanitary purposes;

    2. Uses for navigation, including the service of canals for the purposes of navigation;

    3. Uses for power and for irrigation purposes.

    13 More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • Regulatory Structures at Sault Ste. Marie

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters 14

    Power Plants

    Control Works

  • Regulation of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters 15

  • What is the IJC Mandate for References?

    IJC looks into issues as asked to by the two National governments.

    IJC replies with an independent report and make recommendations to the governments

    on these issues.

    An example is the current reference under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

    One of the first references was regarding pollution of boundary waters report in 1918.

    16 More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • IJC 1918 Water Quality Report

    Improvements in death rates

    were due to the

    protection of

    water supplies

    through use of

    bleaching

    powder and

    liquid chlorine.

    17 More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • What is the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement?

    The purpose of the Agreement is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and

    biological integrity of the waters of the

    Great Lakes basin ecosystem"

    18

    President Richard Nixon and Prime Minister Pierre

    Trudeau signing the Great Lakes Water Quality

    Agreement, April 15, 1972

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

    The Cuyahoga River on fire in 1969.

  • Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Timeline

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters 19

  • IJC 1996: the battle against eutrophication has been substantially successful

    Baker, D. B. and Dolan, D. M. 2009. Lake Erie Phosphorus: Tributary Loading Data and Long-

    term trends. Western Lake Erie Basin Conference, Maumee Bay State Park. March 11, 2009.

    20

  • Lake Erie Phosphorus Loading

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters 21

  • Columbia River Basin

    St. Mary - Milk River Basin

    Souris River Basin

    Red River Basin

    Rainy River Basin

    The Great Lakes and Waterways

    Saint Croix River Basin

    Missisquoi Bay Lake Champlain

    Saint John River Basin

    June 13, 2009 Secretary of State Clinton and Minister Cannon celebrate centennial of the Boundary Waters Treaty with the IJC.

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • Most Applications Were Approved

    Figure 1: Status of Applications

    49

    6 6

    Approved No action/deferred Withdrawn /Technical

    Concerns

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • The Record 1909 to 2006

    Figure 2: Trends in Applications and References

    8

    1214

    17

    7

    19

    15

    6

    1

    1909-1929 1930-1949 1950-1969 1970-1989 1990-2006

    References (57) Applications (61)

    s

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • Remarkable Level of Consensus

    Figure 3: IJC Dockets 1909-2006

    Agreement

    Reached

    No Agreement

    More than a century of cooperation protecting shared waters

  • For more than one hundred years, the International Joint Commission has worked with the governments of the U.S. and Canada to prevent potential disputes and to resolve amicably problems involving air and water quality and water quantity from coast to coast.

  • John Nevin International Joint Commission The IJC, Boundary Waters Treaty and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Wednesday, January 23, 2013