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HBRD VE ELEKTRKL ARALAR

Her tercih bir vazgeitir

Abdullah DEMR, Yrd. Do. Dr.

VERMLLK VE KIYASLAMALAR

What is an EPA rating?

Conditions

Drive cycle: e.g. city or highway cycle, real-world, or constant speed

Test temperature

Start: (warm or cold) Fuel: convert to gasoline-equivalent

Test mass: (accounts for passengers and cargo)

MPGe rating

PHEVs

Kaynak: Dan Lauber, Electric Vehicles 101, Nov 13, 2009

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, First Edition. / Chris Mi, M. Abul Masrur and David Wenzhong Gao. / 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The fuel economy of conventional vehicles is evaluated by fuel consumption (liters) per 100 km, or miles per gallon. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency sets the methods for fuel economy certification. There are usually two numbers, one for city driving and one for highway driving. There is an additional fuel economy number that evaluates the combined fuel economy by combining the 55% city and 45% highway MPG numbers [68]:

For pure EVs, the fuel economy is best described by electricity consumption for a certain range, for example, watt hour/mile or kWh/100 km. For example, a typical passenger car consumes 120250 Wh/mile. In order to compare the fuel efficiency of EVs with conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles, the energy content of gasoline is used to convert the numbers. Since 1 gallon of gasoline contains 33.7 kWh energy (http://www.eere.doe.gov), the equivalent fuel economy of an EV can be expressed as

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, First Edition. / Chris Mi, M. Abul Masrur and David Wenzhong Gao. / 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Therefore, a passenger car that consumes 240 Wh/mile will have an equivalent gasoline mileage of 140 MPG from the energy point of view.

Notlar: MPG = mil/gal 1 gal = 4,54 litre (UK) 1 gal = 3,78 litre (US) 1 barrel petroluen = 42 gal = 158,99 litre (ham petrol) [US] 1 mil= 1609 m

Avrupa: NEDC (New European Driving Cycle - Yeni Avrupa Sr evrimi) 40 saniye rlanti periyotsuzdur. lm motor altrldktan hemen sonra balar.

zellikler: evrim uzunluu : 11,007 km Ortalama hz : 33.6 km/h Maks. hz : 120 km/h

evrim: Bir tatn belli bir mesafeyi belli hz ve viteslerde katetmesidir.

EK NOTLAR: NEDC (New European Driving Cycle - Yeni Avrupa Sr evrimi)

EK NOTLAR: YAKIT TKETM LME Yakt tketim testleri/deerleri, genellikle 2004/3/EC ile dzeltilmi AB Direktifi 80/1268/EEC'ye gre yaplmaktadr. Ayrca ABnin RL 1999/100/CE normuna gre de deerler verilmektedir. Aralarn teknik zelliklerinin belirtildii bror ya da kullanc el kitaplarndaki ehir ii, ehir d ve ortalama yakt tketim deerlerinin hangi direktiflere gre tespit edildii genellikle ilgili blmde dipnot olarak belirtilmektedir.

80/1268/EEC direktifi yakt tketimi deerleri: Laboratuar ortamnda ve belirli koullarda yaplan testlerde elde edilen, l/100 km mertebesinde sonular gstermektedir. Bu direktife gre: ehir ii yakt tketimi, laboratuar ortamnda souktan altrlm motor ile 4 km'lik teorik bir mesafe boyunca maksimum 50 km/h ve ortalama 19 km/h hzla llm yakt tketim deerlerdir. ehir d yakt tketimi ise ehir ii lmnden hemen sonra gerekletirilen, 7 km'lik teorik bir mesafe boyunca maksimum 120 km/h hza ulaacak ekilde, yar zamanl sabit hz ve yar zamanl deiken hzla llm yakt tketim deerleridir. Birleik/Karma tketim deeri ise ehir ii ve ehir d testlerinin kat edilen mesafe lsyle arlkl ortalamas alnarak hesaplanmaktadr. Karma yakt tketimi; otomobil yaklak %37 normal ehir ii trafikte ve yaklak %63 ehir d trafikte kullanlarak elde edilir.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, First Edition. / Chris Mi, M. Abul Masrur and David Wenzhong Gao. / 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Well-to-Wheel Efficiency

The above fuel efficiencies are also called tank-to-wheel efficiencies. This does not reflect the losses during the refining and distribution. It is sometimes easier to compare the overall fuel efficiencies of conventional vehicles and EVs. For gasoline, this efficiency is 83%, which reflects a lumped efficiency from the refining and distribution of gasoline. For electricity generation, this efficiency is 30.3%, which reflects a lumped efficiency that includes electricity generation of 32.8% (assume electricity is generated from gasoline) and distribution of electricity at 92.4%. Charge efficiency of the battery also needs to be reflected [9]. Thus,

where electricity =30.3 and gasoline =83%, and subscript ICEV stands for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle.

Example 4: A car of 30 MPG will have a well-to-wheel fuel efficiency of 24 MPG, and an EV that consumes 240 Wh/mile will have a well-to-wheel efficiency of 42.5 MPG.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, First Edition. / Chris Mi, M. Abul Masrur and David Wenzhong Gao. / 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PHEV Fuel Economy

For PHEVs, it is usually confusing as to which number should be used. Here, we discuss two different scenarios: all-electric capable PHEVs and blended PHEVs. For all-electric capable PHEVs, it is useful to indicate the electric range, in miles or kilometers, and associated energy consumption during that range, in kilowatt hours/mile, and potentially gas equivalent MPG. Another set of numbers is needed to show the MPG during CS mode driving. A suggested label is shown in Figure 4. For blended PHEVs, since there is no pure electric driving range, it is useful to label the fuel economy in CD and CS mode separately as shown in Figure 5. It may be preferred to include the electric energy consumption during CD mode as well.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives, First Edition. / Chris Mi, M. Abul Masrur and David Wenzhong Gao. / 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PHEV Fuel Economy

Figure 4: Fuel economy labeling for all-electric-capable PHEV

Figure 5: Fuel economy labeling for blended PHEV

Energy Loss : City Driving

Engine Loss 76%

Engine

Standby 8%

Driveline Losses

3%

Driveline

Aero 3%

Rolling 4%

Braking 6%

Fuel Tank 100%

16% 13%

POWERTRAIN VEHICLE-Related

Urban Drive Cycle Energy Balance / 2005 3 L Toyota Camry

Kaynak: Dan Lauber, Electric Vehicles 101, Nov 13, 2009

Energy Loss : Highway Driving

Engine Loss 77%

Engine

Standby 0%

Driveline Losses

4%

Driveline

Aero 10%

Rolling 7%

Braking 2%

Fuel Tank: 100%

23% 19%

POWERTRAIN VEHICLE-Related

Highway Drive Cycle Energy Balance / 2005 3 L Toyota Camry

Kaynak: Dan Lauber, Electric Vehicles 101, Nov 13, 2009

Can eliminate engine entirely

Engine downsizing Decoupling of engine and wheel

Energy Saving : Hybrid Systems

Engine Loss 76%

Engine

Standby 8%

Driveline Losses

3%

Driveline

Aero 3%

Rolling 4%

Braking 6%

Fuel Tank: 100%

16% 13%

Micro Hybrid Eliminates

Mild Hybrid Reduces Plug-in

Full Hybrid Reduces

Kaynak: Dan Lauber, Electric Vehicles 101, Nov 13, 2009

Energy Loss : City Driving Electric Vehicle

Motor Loss 10%

Motor

Driveline Losses

14%

Driveline

Aero 29%

Rolling 35%

Braking 11%

Batteries 100%

90% 76%

POWERTRAIN VEHICLE-Related

Urban Drive Cycle Energy Balance

Kaynak: Dan Lauber, Electric Vehicles 101, Nov 13, 2009

Well-to-Wheels Efficiency

Generation 33%

Transmission 94%

Plug-to-Wheels 76%

Refining 82%

Transmission 98%

Pump-to-Wheels 16%

23%

13%

31%

80%

Well-to-Tank Tank-to-Wheels

31% 76% = 23%

80% 16% = 13%

[http://www.nesea.org/]]

Source: http://www.nesea.org

Kaynak: Dan Lauber, Electric Vehicles 101, Nov 13, 2009

Prof . Dr . Ali Srmen, "Ulamda Unutulmamas Gereken Bir Boyut: Tat Teknolojileri", Mimar ve Mhendis - Gelimenin Lokomotifi Ulam Sistemleri, Say: 82 Mart - Nisan 2015

Verimlilik

EV vs. ICEV Well-to-Wheel

zgr STN, Elektrikli Otomobiller, stanbul Teknik niversitesi

Well-to-Wheel

http://no-petroleum-vehicles.blogspot.com.tr/2010/10/10-electric-car-for-2010-and-2011-1.html

EVs are the most efficient propulsion technology and can reduce CO2-emissions in transport

Note: BEV: Battery Electric Vehicle; RME: Raps-Methyl-Ester / Source: Own calculations and LBST

Efficiency and Emissions of Different Propulsion Technologies

Em

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HG

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Efficiency (Well-to-Wheel Analysis)

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

0

50

100

250

300

350

150

200

Coal-to-

Liquid

ICE

Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Bio-diesel (RME)

Biofuels

Less e

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