Fall 2013 midterm review

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  • 1. Nutrition HO-15 Midterm Review

2. Midterm a mix of multiple choice, true false and matching. 56 questions is worth 15% of your total grade 150 points everyone takes a different exam. draws from a pool you will have 100 minutes to take the exam is timed will be available for one week can only be accessed and submitted ONCE. 3. Nutrients Water Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins Minerals 4. Nutrients - Organic . Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins . 5. Nutrients Energy Yielding . Carbohydrates - 4 calories/g Fat 9 calories/g Protein - 4 calories/g . . 6. Nutrients Energy Yielding 7. Nutrients Nutrients - Energy Yielding Muffin 280 calories (45 g) 15 g CHO 15X4 = 60 calories 20 g fat 20X9 = 180 calories 10 g protein 10X4 = 40 calories 280 calories 8. Recognizing a healthy diet Adequacy - getting enough Balance - proportionality Moderation - nothing in excess Variety - wide selection Calorie Control - not too much or too little 9. Research Case Study Laboratory Double blinded study Placebo controlled Interventional Epidemiologic 10. Research Gold Standard Randomized Double Blinded Placebo Controlled interventional Trial 11. Research Designs A 55 year old female is given a supplement of Vitamin E and is observed over 3 month to evaluate the effects on her heart health? What type of study is this? 12. Research Designs A 55 year old female is given a supplement of Vitamin E and is observed over 3 month to evaluate the effects on her heart health? What type of study is this? Case Study 13. Research Designs 200,000 individuals had their LDL, HDL and cholesterol measured at baseline and again at 10 years. Diets were evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire. The number of heart attacks was the primary end point. At 10 years, correlations were made between diet, cholesterol and heart attacks. What type of study is this? 14. Research Designs 200,000 individuals had their LDL, HDL and cholesterol measured at baseline and again at 10 years. Diets were evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire. The number of heart attacks was the primary end point. At 10 years, correlations were made between diet, cholesterol and heart attacks. What type of study is this? Epidemiologic 15. Nutrient Density Muffin # 1 Muffin #2 280 calories 20 g fat (15 g saturated fat) 10 g sugar Less than 2% daily value: Fe, Ca, Vit. A & C 200 calories 15 g fat (2 g saturated fat) 4 g sugar (10 g whole grain CHO) 10-15% daily value: Fe, Ca Vit. A & C 16. Macronutrients Percent of Total Calories Carbohydrates 45-65% Fat 20-35% Protein 10-35% (10-15%) 17. Macronutrients Example: Carbohydrates 45% Fat 30% Protein 25% TOTAL 100% 18. Phytochemicals Biologically active substance in plants Phytonutrients May protect against chronic disease Example: Soy, chocolate, flaxseed, tomatoes, garlic, wine, tea Anti-oxidants 19. Importance of Exercise 20. ACSM Guidelines Or Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day, 5 X week And Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 X week 8 -10 strength-training exercises 8 - 12 repetitions of each exercise 2/week. 21. Benefits of Exercise more restful sleep improved bone density lower risks of chronic disease higher quality of life 22. Mouth Stomach Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Small Intestine Colon 23. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon - 24. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon - 25. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon - 26. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon - 27. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine- Colon 28. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed Colon - 29. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes, secretes insulin & glucagon Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed Colon - fluid and minerals absorption & some fiber fragments absorbed 30. Storage Organs when we eat too much CHO Where? Where? Fat Where? Protein Where? 31. Storage Organs when we eat too much CHO Muscle & Liver Fat Fat Where? Protein Where? 32. Storage Organs when we eat too much CHO Glycogen Fat Fat Fat Protein Where? 33. Storage Organs when we eat too much CHO Glycogen Fat Fat Fat Protein Fat N o t 34. Carbohydrates Simple or Complex? 35. Carbohydrates Simple or Complex? Simple! 36. Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides 37. Complex Carbohydrates fiber glycogen Starch Fiber Glycogen 38. Fiber 39. Which part of the wheat kernel Has fiber? 40. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? 41. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? 42. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible? 43. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible? Husk 44. List the appropriate sequence of events which happen after you eat a plain white bagel: I. Starch starts to breakdown into maltose in the mouth II. Maltose breaks down into glucose in the small intestines III. Glucose is absorbed from the small intestines into the bloodstream IV. The pancreas secretes insulin in response to high blood glucose V. Insulin transports glucose from the bloodstream into cells VI. Blood glucose decreases 45. Diabetes (Type I & II) Onset? Type 1 Type 2 46. Diabetes (Type I & II) Onset? Type 1-typically childhood Type 2-typically adulthood 47. Diabetes (Type I & II) Cause? Type 1 Type 2 48. Diabetes (Type I & II) Cause? Type 1 - autoimmune disease insulin secreting cells impaired Type 2 - acquired insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, diet 49. Diabetes (Type I & II) No Insulin Secretion? Type 1 Type 2 50. Diabetes (Type I & II) No Insulin Secretion? Type 1 - no natural insulin Type 2 - enough or too much insulin 51. Lipids P LIPIDS Triglycerides (TG) 95% of all lipids in foods and the human body Phospholipids For example, lecithin Sterols For example, cholesterol 52. Fats 53. Percent of Calories from Fat Hamburger 500 calories 25 g saturated fat 54. Percent of Calories from Fat Hamburger 500 calories 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories 55. Percent of Calories from Fat Hamburger 500 calories 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 sf calories 225 sf calories / 500 calories = .45 = 45% 56. Percent of Calories from Fat Hamburger 500 calories 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories 225 calories / 500 calories = .45 = 45% 45% of the calories in the burger are from saturated fat 57. LDL and HDL What is LDL? What is HDL? 58. LDL and HDL What is LDL? Low density lipoprotein What is HDL? High density lipoprotein NOT ACTUALLY CHOLESTEROL 59. LDL and HDL What is LDL? Low density lipoprotein Transports cholesterol to tissues bad cholesterol What is HDL? High density lipoprotein Scavenges cholesterol good cholesterol 60. LDL and HDL How do you lower LDL? How do you increase HDL? 61. LDL and HDL Lower your intake of saturated fat and trans fat How do you lower LDL? Exercise How do you increase HDL? 62. LDL Small dense More atherogenic Large bouyant Less atherogenic 63. LDL Small dense More atherogenic Carbohydrates Large bouyant Less atherogenic Saturated fat 64. Trans Fats 65. Essential Fatty Acids EFAs are which type of fatty acid? Saturated fatty acid? Monounsaturated fatty acid? Polyunsaturated fatty acid? 66. Essential Fatty Acids EFAs are which type of fatty acid? Saturated fatty acid? Monounsaturated fatty acid? Polyunsaturated fatty acid 67. Structure of Proteins Peptide Bond 68. Structure of Proteins 69. Roles of Proteins Enzymes Structural Hormones Precursors (neurotransmitters/vitamins) Antibodies Fluid Balance Buffers Blood Clotting Provide Energy 70. Protein digestibility Which types of proteins are best absorbed by the body? 71. Protein digestibility Which types of proteins are best absorbed by the body? Animal sources: 90+% Legumes: 80%-90% Grains: 70%-90% Moist heat increases digestibility Dry heat decreases digestibility Digestion and absorption 72. Complementary Proteins Amino acids from one protein source complement the amino acids from another protein source to form a complete protein. 73. Wasting When the amine group has been removed, it means the amino acid has been wasted 74. Protein Energy Malnutrition 75. Protein Energy Malnutrition Marasmus Chronic protein and energy deficiency Severe wasting Matchstick arms 76. Protein Energy Malnutrition 77. Protein Energy Malnutrition Kwashiorkor Protein malnutrition Acute onset (1-3 yr) Edema (legs/belly) Fatty liver 78. DRI Protein DRI protein: example 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg 79. DRI Protein DRI protein: example 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day 80. DRI Protein DRI protein: example 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories 81. DRI Protein DRI protein: example 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories 10-15% of total calories from protein-most Americans 10-35% of total calories 82. THE END