EZ-COURSEWARE State-of-the-Art Teaching Tools From AMS Teaching Tomorrow’s Technology Today

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EZ-COURSEWARE State-of-the-Art Teaching Tools From AMS Teaching Tomorrows Technology Today. New Trends in VLSI Design. Processor Performance. Why is Performance Improving?. Better circuit design More memory, cache and register More parallelism (wider data bus, pipelining, etc.) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>EZ-COURSEWARE</p><p>State-of-the-Art Teaching ToolsFrom AMSTeaching Tomorrows Technology Today</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>New Trends in VLSI Design</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Processor Performance</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Why is Performance Improving?Better circuit designMore memory, cache and registerMore parallelism (wider data bus, pipelining, etc.)Transistors are switching faster!!!!</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Simple Scaling</p><p>ParameterFull ScalingConstant Voltage ScalingDimensions:width, length, oxide thickness1/S1/SVoltages:supply, threshold1/S1Intrinsic gate delay1/S1/S2Gate Capacitance1/S1/SCurrent per device1/SSPower dissipation per gate1/S2S</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Chip AreaTechnology (mm)1.51.00.80.60.350.25Intel 386 DXIntel 486 DXPentiumPentium Pro &amp;Pentium II1cm2Remark:mm = mircon</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Transistor Count vs. Year</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Average Transistor Price vs. Year</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Can Scaling Continue in Future?Scaling works well in the past</p><p>In order to keep scaling to work in the future, many technical problems need to be solved.</p><p>Year19891992199519971999Technology(mm)0.650.50.350.250.18</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>The RoadmapNational Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS)Called ITRS (International TRS) since 4th EdProjection of future technology requirements for the next 15 years.</p><p>EditionYear of Publication1st19922nd19943rd19974th1999</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Roadmap OverviewFocus Technology Working GroupsDesign &amp; TestProcess Integration, Devices &amp; StructuresFront End ProcessLithographyInterconnectFactory IntegrationAssembly &amp; PackagingCrosscut Technology Working GroupsEnvironment, Safety &amp; HealthDefect ReductionMetrologyModeling &amp; Simulation</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Technology Characteristics*Data for high-performance microprocessor*Data from 97 Edition of Roadmap</p><p>Year199920012003200620092012Technology(mm)0.180.150.130.10.070.05Density(#trans./cm2)6.2M10M18M39M84M180MChip size(cm2)3.403.854.305.206.207.50Power(W)90110130160170175Frequency(MHz)1250150021003500600010000# routing layers6-7777-88-99</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Technical Problemswith Future VLSI Technology</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Too much transistorsDesign are too complicatedNo way to do it manually</p><p>Solutions:CADDesign hierarchicallyDesign reuse</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Area, Performance, Power, NoiseImportant to keep area small.How to achieve such a good performance?Power consumption is huge. Heat dissipation is also a problem.Both Capacitive and Inductive Noises are not ignorable now.</p><p>Solutions:Physical Design is an appropriate stage to handle all these.Many research needs to be done.</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Interconnect AreaToo many interconnects.Occupy too much area.</p><p>Solution:More interconnect layers.Made possible by Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP).Note that more layers doesnt necessarily mean less interconnect area.Also, routing is no longer a 2-D problem.Hence, new CAD algorithms needed.</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>SEM Photo of Metal Layers</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Cross-Section of Metal Layers</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Interconnect DelayTechnology Generation(mm)1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007Source: SIA Roadmap 97</p></li><li><p>Interconnect DelayDominating factor in determining circuit performance nowadays.</p><p>Solutions:Copper wireLow-k (dielectric constant) materialInterconnect Optimization at physical design</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>Design PlanningNeed to plan ahead during the early stages of VLSI design cycle.Need to take physical design into consideration early.Many research needs to be done.</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>SummaryTechnology Trend:Transistors are smaller.Transistors and Interconnects are denser.Chip areas are larger.Number of metal layers are more.Problems:Design complexity.Tradeoff of Area, Performance, Power, Noise.Interconnect area and Interconnect delay.Increasing planning requirements.</p><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li><li><p>www.advancedmsinc.com</p></li></ul>