ethos, pathos, or logos? what appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?

Download Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? What appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?

Post on 24-Dec-2015




1 download

Embed Size (px)


  • Slide 1
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? What appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?
  • Slide 2
  • Objective: Take Cornell notes in your composition books and become the masters of all things ethos, pathos, and logos!
  • Slide 3
  • Basic Information to Locate The authors Central Argument What is the main point being argued? The Target Audience What groups will most likely be targeted? The Authors Purpose in writing this Include the words persuade and target audience in your answer! Persuasive Techniques used to persuade
  • Slide 4
  • Strategies to Look for in Persuasion Ethos (authority) Pathos (emotions or values) Logos (statistics, facts, proof) Cause and Effect (if this occursthen this will happen) Analogy (a comparison to illustrate your point more clearly)
  • Slide 5
  • What is Persuasion? Presenting the "Argument" The goal of argument is to win acceptance of one's ideas. Modern argumentation theory has roots in Greek and Roman thinking (Aristotle). We judge evidence, investigate carefully, state ideas accurately, and listen critically
  • Slide 6
  • Who is Aristotle? Aristotle (384-322 BCE) is the most notable product of the educational program devised by Plato. Aristotle wrote on an amazing range of subjects, from logic, philosophy, and ethics to physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric.
  • Slide 7
  • What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The goal of persuasion is to change others point of view or to move others to take action.
  • Slide 8
  • What is? ETHOS, PATHOS, and LOGOS Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details.
  • Slide 9
  • Ethos: ETHICS (Creditability) Greek for character To make the audience decide right or wrong about what is being presented to it Political issues, national beliefs, religious issues, etc Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values through reliable and appropriate use of support and general accuracy
  • Slide 10
  • How to build your creditability? Does the audience respect you? Does the audience believe you are of good character? Does the audience believe you are generally trustworthy? Does the audience believe you are an authority on this speech topic? Keep in mind that it isnt enough for you to know that you are a credible source. (This isnt about your confidence, experience, or expertise.) Your audience must know this. Ethos is your level of credibility as perceived by your audience. What other credibility does the author build into the argument? Does the author supplement his/her authority with someone elses as well?
  • Slide 11
  • Pathos: EMOTION Greek for suffering or experience To make the audience feel something about what is presented to it Children, animals, illness, memories, etc Tugs at your heart strings EFFECT: Evokes an emotional response
  • Slide 12
  • How to appeal to emotion? Do your words evoke feelings of love? sympathy? fear? Do your visuals evoke feelings of compassion? envy? Does your characterization of the competition evoke feelings of hate? contempt? Emotional connection can be created in many ways by a speaker, perhaps most notably by stories, but also anecdotes, analogies, similes, and metaphors is often to link an aspect of our primary message with a triggered emotional response from the audience.
  • Slide 13
  • Logos: LOGIC Greek for word To make the audience think about what is presented to it Statistics, facts, authorities, etc Very straightforward, and not fluff. It has a very scientific, factual approach. EFFECT: Evokes a cognitive, rationale response
  • Slide 14
  • How can you appeal to Logic? Does your message make sense? Is your message based on facts, statistics, and evidence? Will your call-to-action lead to the desired outcome that you promise?
  • Slide 15
  • Should persuasive writing have more than one appeal? Yes! The more appeals used, the more likely the reader will connect with it.
  • Slide 16
  • Examples of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos "I will end this war in Iraq responsibly, and finish the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan. I will rebuild our military to meet future conflicts. But I will also renew the tough, direct diplomacy that can prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons and curb Russian aggression. I will build new partnerships to defeat the threats of the 21st century: terrorism and nuclear proliferation; poverty and genocide; climate change and disease. And I will restore our moral standing, so that America is once again that last, best hope for all who are called to the cause of freedom, who long for lives of peace, and who yearn for a better future." Democratic Presidential Candidate Acceptance Speech by Barack Obama. August 28th, 2008.
  • Slide 17
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? "However, although private final demand, output, and employment have indeed been growing for more than a year, the pace of that growth recently appears somewhat less vigorous than we expected. Notably, since stabilizing in mid-2009, real household spending in the United States has grown in the range of 1 to 2 percent at annual rates, a relatively modest pace. Households' caution is understandable. Importantly, the painfully slow recovery in the labor market has restrained growth in labor income, raised uncertainty about job security and prospects, and damped confidence. Also, although consumer credit shows some signs of thawing, responses to our Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices suggest that lending standards to households generally remain tight." The Economic Outlook and Monetary Policy by Ben Bernanke. August 27th, 2010
  • Slide 18
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed." I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963
  • Slide 19
  • Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Can Also Be Found In Advertising! Imagine the following advertisements and lets decide as a class whether they would be an example of Ethos, Pathos, or Logos
  • Slide 20
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A child is shown covered in bug bites after using an inferior bug spray.
  • Slide 21
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Tiger Woods endorses Nike.
  • Slide 22
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Sprite Zero is 100% sugar-free.
  • Slide 23
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A 32-oz. bottle of Tide holds enough to wash 32 loads.
  • Slide 24
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A commercial shows an image of a happy couple riding in a Corvette.
  • Slide 25
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Cardiologists recommend Ecotrin more than any other brand of aspirin.
  • Slide 26
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Advil Liqui- Gels provide up to 8 hours of continuous pain relief.
  • Slide 27
  • Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A magazine ad shows people smiling while smoking cigarettes.
  • Slide 28
  • The Rhetorical Triangle The rhetorical triangle is typically represented by an equilateral triangle, suggesting that logos, ethos, and pathos should be balanced within a text. However, which aspect(s) of the rhetorical triangle you favor in your writing depends on both the audience and the purpose of that writing. Yet, if you are in doubt, seek a balance among all three elements.
  • Slide 29
  • Questions to Help You Recognize and Utilize Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Logos: Is the thesis clear and specific? (for help with thesis statements, see the Revising Thesis Statements handout) Is the thesis supported by strong reasons and credible evidence? Is the argument logical and arranged in a well-reasoned order?
  • Slide 30
  • Cont. Ethos: What are the writers qualifications? How has the writer connected him/herself to the topic being discussed? Does the writer demonstrate respect for multiple viewpoints by using sources in the text? Are sources credible? Are sources documented appropriately? Does the writer use a tone that is suitable for the audience/purpose? Is the diction (word choice) used appropriate for the audience/purpose? Is the document presented in a polished and professional manner?
  • Slide 31
  • Cont. Pathos: Are vivid examples, details and images used to engage the readers emotions and imagination? Does the writer appeal to the values and beliefs of the reader by using examples readers can relate to or care about?