Post on 19-Dec-2015




2 download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> PERSUASIVE APPEALS: Logos, Pathos, Ethos </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 RHETORICAL STRATEGIES DESCRIPTION NARRATION (anecdotes) ILLUSTRATION (examples) PROCESS-ANALYSIS DIVISION and CLASSIFICATION (roles, types) COMPARISON and CONTRAST (similarities, differ.) DEFINITION REFUTATION PARADOX CAUSE and EFFECT ANALOGY bag o tricks </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 TYPES of EVIDENCE FACTS STATISTICS FIGURES, NUMBERS, DATES EXAMPLES REASONS DETAILS ANECDOTES EYE-WITNESS TESTIMONY (first-hand, primary) EXPERT TESTIMONY </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE TIMELINESS (relevance) INTENT (to entertain, to persuade) CREDIBILITY (sincerity, agendas) CONTEXT (circumstance, situation) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE LOGICAL: oreasons, examples, details, facts, stats, figures EMOTIONAL: oexamples, anecdotes, eye-witness testimony CREDIBLE: odetails, facts, stats, figures, expert testimony </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 THE Rhetorical TRIANGLE PATHOS LOGOS ETHOS </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 Not to be confused with Alexandre Dumas Three Musketeers: oAthos oPorthos oAramis o(and d'Artagnan ) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 BACKGROUND: ARISTOTLE and the RHETORICAL TRIANGLE In Rhetoric (350 BC), the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC) suggests that the fundamental human characteristics include: ologic, reasoning oemotion, empathy, compassion ocredibility, trust (perception of character) Thus, he divided the persuasive appeals of rhetoric into 3 parts: oLogos, oPathos, oEthos </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 LOGOS logic SUPPORT, PROOF, GROUNDS: ologic, oreasons, oexamples, odetails, ofacts oJust the facts, maam. (Dragnet) oappeals to the Vulcan inside us (Star Trek) </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 EVALUATING LOGOS PURPOSE= to stir readers thoughts, to offer readers different perspectives, for readers to see something in a new way THESIS= reasonable EVIDENCE= accurate; clear, convincing; relevant, appropriate REASONS= make sense, no fallacies </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 LOGOS EXAMPLES SHAKESPEARES SONNET #18: Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 LOGOS EXAMPLES SONNET 18: LOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: o ordered structure 3 quatrains + 1 couplet evidence to support the point + concise statement of the point RHYME SCHEME (ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG) REGULAR RHYTHM o 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter LOGIC, REASONS oCOMPARISONS and CONTRASTS </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 Other Examples of Logos in Shakespeare Macbeth on regicide Hamlet on anything (esp. suicide) Brutus on Conspiracy Jacques on the world stage Jacques on the 7 ages of man Ulysses on degree </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 LOGOS in everyday life to win an argument on any subject: oreceipts, ticket stubs ophotos, video otext or phone or e-mail messages owitnesses, quotes oexamples, instances, incidents, anecdotes oweather, financial, medical, legal reports </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 LOGOS in everyday life FRIENDS: to win an argument on sports (e.g.): ouse reasons supported by statistics, highlights (examples), details, facts, spectator (witness) SCHOOL: to argue a grade: orefer (rationally) to the syllabus, assignment sheet, textbook, test question, lecture notes, handouts </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 LOGOS in everyday life PARENTS: to argue for a raise in allowance to argue to borrow the car to argue to extend curfew orefer to record (stats) or make a bargain CAR: to buy a car, to repair/keep vs. trade/sell/junk ouse a debit sheet, refer to an advertisement oKelley Blue Book, NADA,, Lemon Law </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 LOGOS in everyday life WORK (with your boss): to argue for a raise, day off employment file, service, dedication, time card, schedule WORK (with a customer): refer to circular, advertisement, sign, computer, register WORK (as a customer): with the cashier, customer service representative refer to circular, advertisement, sign, register receipt </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 LOGOS in everyday life Card Stacking opresent only one side of the issue ofailure in Iraq Erroneous, faulty data oWMD omistaken witness ofalse credentials oassumption, inference, implication (not fact) Faulty reasoning opoor induction or deduction BAD LOGOS </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 PATHOS sympathy, empathy, pathetic appeal to emotions (*fear, pity, guilt) human emotions= affection, anger, contempt, delight, despair, disgust, embarrassment, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, hope, horror, humiliation, humor, jealousy, joy, love, royalty, passion, pity, pride, remorse, ridicule, sadness, shame, shock, shyness, sorrow, vengeance *often stronger than LOGOS </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 EVALUATING PATHOS LEGITIMATE &amp; APPROPRIATE oNOT forced, oNOT faked, oNOT manipulative With RESTRAINT oNOT exaggerated, oNOT overdone with wild hysterics With a SENSE of AUDIENCE </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 EVALUATING PATHOS DANGERS: manipulative: ocan lead readers from their better judgment omob mentality often uses loaded language oemotionally charged words or phrases owords with strong connotations </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 PATHOS EXAMPLES Shakespeares Sonnet #29: When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself, and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least; Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate; For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings That then I scorn to change my state with kings. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 Other Examples of Pathos in Shakespeare Macbeths Tomorrow (self-pity) Lear on ingratitude (self-pity) Lear with Mad Tom Lear with dead Cordelia Ophelias madness, Gertrude at Ophelias, Horatio at Hamlets death Mark Antony with Julius Caesars wounds (manipulative) Timons or Coriolanus vitriol Romeo and Juliets death </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 PATHOS in everyday life FRIENDS: peer pressure teasing SCHOOL: to argue a grade, to submit a late assignment oappeal to your bad day, death in the family othe evil computer (the computer ate my homework) oyour race or gender, the teachers race or gender </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 PATHOS in everyday life PARENTS: guilt-trips by/to your mother oprevious events or relationships oother siblings oplaying one parent against the other RELATIONSHIPS: guilt-trips by/to your significant other oprevious events or relationships oother boy/girlfriends </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 PATHOS in everyday life CAR: to buy or keep oattraction, sentimentality, frustration to try to get out of a speeding ticket oappeal to your bad day, death in the family, race or gender, to the officers race or gender oflirt, act dumb or innocent </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 PATHOS in everyday life WORK: to argue with your boss (raise, promotion, break) ouse your family, dedication, years of service, long shift as a customer: oto argue a price, repair work, warranty coverage ouse your years of customer loyalty, justifiable anger or indignation othreaten to take your business elsewhere, to write or call the supervisor, to take your issue up the food chain </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 PATHOS in everyday life Sentimentality: save the children commercials Hatred: mobs, gangs, voters, anti-? demonstrations Patriotism: rallies, parades, 9/11, commercials, commercialization (not just USA patriotism) Love: Valentines Day, ad/commercials, Web sites Sex: ad/commercials (cars, TAG), Web sites Humor: stand-ups, late-night shows, cartoons (hit&amp;run) Religiosity: guilt-trips, hell fire &amp; brimstone, hypocrisy, extremists, fundamentalists, cults BAD PATHOS </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 ETHOS ethics writers credibility, character characteristics of an ethical person: benevolence, courage, credibility, decency, dedication, dignity, enthusiasm, good will, honesty, honor, idealism, intelligence, morality, nobility, patriotism, resolve, respect, responsibility, seriousness, sincerity, trustworthiness, valor, wisdom </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 EVALUATING ETHOS Is the writer ? fair-minded, trustworthy, believable, sincere, honest, well-prepared </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 EVALUATING ETHOS AN ETHICAL WRITER... presents both sides of the issue AND is fair to both sides (Rogerian Method) shows different points of view appears well-versed on subject (accuracy) gives biography (job, education, credentials) uses data thats well-researched (*authority) has displays of intellect/knowledge exhibits a sense of right &amp; wrong is not manipulative (*with PATHOS) uses the voice of a concerned citizen addressing a serious societal issue perhaps is challenging givens/bullies demonstrates good will &amp; good intentions appears dedicated to the truth </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 ETHOS TONE: (toward the subject and the audience) concerned, caring, compassionate interested genuine, frank, earnest, honest NOT sarcastic, NOT self-aggrandizing, self-righteous NOT condescending, NOT arrogant, NOT insincere </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 ETHOS DANGER: exploited to serve unethical ends: pretending to be moral, irresponsible/immoral persons presenting themselves as responsible/moral </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 ETHOS EXAMPLES SHAKESPEARES SONNET #130: My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red, than her lips red: If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound: I grant I never saw a goddess go, My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare, As any she belied with false compare. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 ETHOS EXAMPLES SONNET #130: Same LOGOS as #18 (14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter, 3 quatrains + couplet, contrasts) BUT What is the Speakers tone? oDown-to-earth honesty, wit (anti-Petrarchan) oMean-spirited sarcasm odun, black wires, reek orare = 1) precious, special, 2) unusual, freakish </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 ETHOS EXAMPLES POLONIUS to LAERTES: Yet here, Laertes? Aboard, aboard, for shame! The wind sits in the shoulder of your sail And you are stayed for. There, my blessing with thee. And these few precepts in thy memory Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue, Nor any unproportioned thought his act. Be thou familiar but by no means vulgar. Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, Grapple them unto thy soul with hoops of steel, But do not dull thy palm with entertainment Of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade. Beware Of entrance to a quarrel, but being in, Bear 't that th' opposd may beware of thee. Give every man thy ear but few thy voice. Take each man's censure but reserve thy judgment. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, But not expressed in fancyrich, not gaudy, For the apparel oft proclaims the man, And they in France of the best rank and station Are of a most select and generous chief in that. Neither a borrower nor a lender be, For loan oft loses both itself and friend, And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man. Farewell. My blessing season this in thee. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 ETHOS EXAMPLES Polonius LOGOS: opractical information oaphorisms, maxims, clichs Polonius ETHOS: orambling, meddling old man ofathering at last minute (and the ships waiting!) onot practical, but selfish, self-serving oopposite of Jesus: Beatitudes &amp; faith, hope, love/charity omaking Laertes into a mini-Polonius Polonius TONE? oloving, tough love, thoughtful orambling, babbling, long-winded ocrude, manipulative, sinister, worldly </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 ETHOS EXAMPLES CLAUDIUS at PRAYER: My words fly up, my thoughts remain below. / Words without thoughts never to heaven go. (3.3.98-99) insincerity, artificiality, dishonesty, duplicity, hypocrisy heart vs. words BAD ETHOS = words without thoughts </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 Other Examples of Ethos in Shakespeare Claudius on death Claudius at prayer Lady Macbeth attacking her husbands manliness to convince him to murder Duncan Decius re-interpretation of Julius Caesars dream to get him to go to the capital Mark Antonys eulogy of Julius Caesar to sway the mob against the Conspirators </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 ETHOS in everyday life FRIENDS: your best interest, no ulterior motives advice from personal experiences POLITICS: political, religious, sports scandals (who do you believe) voting for a politician (record, accountability) SCHOOL: request for help or argue a grade ofactors: attendance, participation, preparedness, tone </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 ETHOS in everyday life PARENTS: advice from experience fair, consistent rulings (parents) honesty, reliability, responsibility, accountability (you) RELATIONSHIPS: trust honesty, best interests, morals, values, sincerity responsibility, accountability </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 ETHOS in everyday life CAR: reliable dealer, quality service, good reputation responsibility, accountability, dependability WORK: attempt to be fair-minded, understanding, calm, rational you, your boss, the customer </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 ETHOS in everyday life false charm: oproverbial wolf in sheeps clothing opolitician, serial killer, ex-boy/girlfriend hypocrites: owho say one thing but do another arguing a grade: odisrespectful tone, poor record relationships: opoor record, caught in a lie (lipstick, cig. smell), faulty reasoning, limited sense of right &amp; wrong, bullying BAD ETHOS </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 THE PERSUASIVE APPEALS in everyday life: A CASE STUDY </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 BASEBALL &amp; STEROIDS The STEROID Era </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 MITCHELL REPORT </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 DRAMATIS PERSONAE Kirk Radomski Ba...</li></ul>