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  • Ethos, Pathos, Logos

  • Art of Rhetoric: Learning how to use the three rhetorical styles (Ethos, Pathos, Logos)Key Words to Know:Rhetoric: the art of speaking or writing effectively or persuasively

    Appeals are how a writer/speaker tries to convince his or her intended audience.

  • Whenever you read or hear an argument you must ask yourself, What is the writers/speakers purpose? Is this persuasive? And if so, to whom?"

  • The three methods of persuasion are

    ethospathoslogos

  • EthosThe Writers Character or ImageThe Greek word Ethos is related to our word ethics or ethicalEthics means moral, honest and goodWhen used correctly, Ethos makes the writer/speaker appear... Well-informed about the topic Confident in his or her position Sincere and honest Understanding of concerns and possible objections Humane and considerate

  • ETHOS

    Ethos is a persons credibility with a given audience. It can mean sincerity, authority, expertise, faithfulness, or any adjective that describes someone you can trust to do the right thing.

  • Think about going into your doctor's office and seeing a medical degree from Harvard versus seeing a degree from a no-name town university.

  • What is the difference?

  • The same is true about an author of a piece of writing. The clues are more subtle but they are there if you look for them.

  • Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. When a judge comments on legal precedent audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases.

  • Pathosis more about the audience..

  • How is the audience (of which you are a part) being manipulated?

  • PathosThe emotions of the audiencePathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy.When you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind it, you are acting on pathos.Can be manipulative but it makes people actType of appeal: Emotional appealWe make our decisions mostly based on emotions, such as anger, pity, fear, humor, idealism, fairness, etc.Emotional appeals create a connection between speaker and audience because theyReinforce logical arguments Use diction and imagery to create a bond with the reader in a human way. This is the power of words and imagesOften they are written as a story or about a situation in which people can relate

  • PATHOSPathos appeals rely on emotions and feelings to persuade the audience

    They are often direct, simple, and very powerful

  • If the writing is a story, and the story is very sad and you are sitting at home crying while you read it, are you going to be more sympathetic to the argument that is being made?

  • Commercials such as those put out by MADD or SADD are heartwrenching when they show pictures or talk about children who were killed by drunk drivers.

  • Does the emotion make you more sympathetic?

  • Of course. You can still believe the argument is valid, but it is important to realize that your emotions are being manipulated.

  • Other areas where this happens is during very patriotic speeches in which you can almost imagine hearing the national anthem playing in the background.

  • The argument may or may not be valid, but you are being manipulated by your emotions. Be suspicious of these arguments in general because our emotions are funny things; they can turn our heads away from a very illogical argument

  • If you can imagine music being played in the background when you are reading or listening to a speech, pathos is probably involved.

  • Where do you notice PATHOS appeals?America's older citizens have rightly been called the "greatest generation." It is morally unacceptable that the people that built this country -- our senior citizens -- should suffer hunger in a land of plenty, which they helped to create.-from Americas Second Harvest program

  • America's older citizens have rightly been called the "greatest generation." It is morally unacceptable that the people that built this country -- our senior citizens -- should suffer hunger in a land of plenty, which they helped to create.-from Americas Second Harvest program

  • Logos: The Greek word logos is the basis for the English word logic. Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect, the general meaning of "logical argument." Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, but academic arguments rely more on logos: there will be logical chains of reasoning supporting all claims.

  • Logos

    Logical ArgumentLogos is the use of hard facts, statistics, and logical argumentation. Makes your argument more valid, compelling or convincingLogic and rationality are highly valued in our societyLogical appeals have...Strong, clear claims Solid reasons for claims Strong evidence (facts, statistics, personal experience, expert authority, interviews, observations, anecdotes) Acknowledgement of the opposition There is never only one side to an argument

  • LOGOSLogos appeals rely on the audiences intelligence to persuade them. Education causes audiences to be more skeptical of emotional arguments and more receptive to logos

  • The most important part of logos is where the author/speaker and audience members meet. Where is the common ground between the two?

  • Both sides of a discussion must have common ground on which they can build in order to have a discussion.

  • Major issues, such as abortion or capital punishment, are problematic issues to discuss because neither side can find any common ground with the other side.

  • Therefore, no discussion can take place. There has to be common ground to build on in order to have a discussion and find resolution. These issues will never be resolved between the two binaries because no common ground exists between absolute black and white issues.

  • Where do you see a LOGOS appeal?NASA sees its mission to explore Mars as an endeavor to seek out the possibility of life on that planet. Knowing if water was on Mars is the first step in this research.

  • NASA sees its mission to explore Mars as an endeavor to seek out the possibility of life on that planet. Knowing if water was on Mars is the first step in this research.

  • Where do you notice PATHOS and LOGOS appeals?The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge provides a safe refuge for 180 species of migratory birds, serves as a birthing ground for one of the hemisphere's largest caribou herds and has been home to the Gwinch'in people for a thousand generations. Ninety-five percent (95%) of Alaska's North Slope is already available to Big Oil, but these companies want it all.

  • The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge provides a safe refuge for 180 species of migratory birds, serves as a birthing ground for one of the hemisphere's largest caribou herds and has been home to the Gwinch'in people for a thousand generations. Ninety-five percent (95%) of Alaska's North Slope is already available to Big Oil, but these companies want it all.

  • Putting Persuasion to Practice Example #1:Many advertisers for consumer goods aim at making us insecure about our attractiveness or social acceptability, and then offer a remedy for this feeling in the form of their product. This is common with toothpaste, chewing gum, clothing, hair products, and cars. Is this an example of Ethos, Pathos or Logos? Why? PATHOS

  • Example #2:Youre at the dentist and you leave with a new whitening toothpaste. On the tube, it says, In a research study, 49% of patients saw improved whiteness and less plaque in 2-3 weeks. Is this an example of Ethos, Pathos or Logos? Why?LOGOS

  • Example #3:When an actor in a pain reliever commercial puts on a doctors white coat, the advertisers are hoping that wearing this coat will give the actor the authority to talk persuasively about medicines. Is this an example of Ethos, Pathos or Logos? Why?ETHOS

  • George W.s 13 sentence speechGeorge W. Bush has become notorious for being a poor orator. Many critics of Bush have bashed him for his verbal mistakes and for his choice of wording (He was even criticized for not speaking to the nation soon enough after the terrorist attacks on September 11. However, on September 14, he gave one of the best speeches of his life. He spoke only thirteen sentences and did so in only three minutes.

  • On September 14, Bush took a short helicopter tour of the devastated New York area and then walked between the piles of rubble. He talked with volunteers, firefighters, and police officers. Hearing chants of "USA! USA!" from the workers, Bush took hold of a bullhorn, climbed to the top of a small pile of rubble, and put his arm around a fire fighter. Here is a transcript of what happened:

  • CROWD: U.S.A.! U.S.A.!THE PRESIDENT: Thank you all. I want you all to know --

  • THE PRESIDENT: I can't talk any louder. (Laughter.) I want you all to know that America today -- that America today is on bended knee in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here, for the families who mourn. This nation stands with the good people of New York City, and New Jersey and Connecticut, as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens.

  • Q: I can't hear you. THE PRESIDENT: I can hear you. (Applause.) I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. (Applause.) And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon. (Applause.)