Elements & Principles Review
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- 1.Arts Elements andVisual Principles
2. ELEMENTS OF ART Are the visual, tactile, spatial (and sometimes the sonic)sensory qualities used when creating or talking about2D, 3D and time based artworks. Arts elements are traditionally associated with particulararts disciplines and art forms. In visual arts, theseelements include 3. LINE Line is a mark on asurface that describesa shape or outline. Itcan create textureand can be thick andthin. Cataract 3 by BridgetRiley, 1967. PVA oncanvas. 4. Ellsworth Kelly. From series of plant drawings. 5. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. Alberto Giacometti. Se lf-Po rtrra it. 1954Po rtra it o f M e . Ha y a rd a nd he rm Da ug hte r Ca ro line . 1815 6. Rembrandt. Sketches for Chris t He a ling the Sic k. 1647-49 7. SHAPE Shape is a 2D linewith no fo rm orthickness. Shapes are flat andeither geometric (eg.a square) or organic(eg. A swirl or ripple) 8. Richard Serra Jo e 9. Richard Serra Jo e 10. SPACE . There are 2 types ofspace, positive andnegative. Positive space is thespace taken up an objectin the area. Negative space is thespace a ro und the object,or space that is no t takenup by an object. 11. SPACE Depth is created by a visualperspective used to give the illusionof depth or distance on a flat surface.Sometimes depth is included as partof s p a c e . Line a r Pe rs p e c tive is a way of showing depth where distant objects are made proportionally smaller than nearer ones. Horizon Lines and Vanishing Points determine the scale of objects within 12. TEXTURE There are 2 types oftexture used to talkabout the surfacequalities of artworks,used to describe theroughness orsmoothness inobjects and surfacesDetail of Sunflowers by VanGogh, (1888, oil on canvas)showing texture of impastotechnique. 13. VISUAL TEXTURE Visual Texture isthe illus io n oftexture, created ona flat surface.Graphite pencil drawings of fur. Graphite pencil and charcoal drawing of glass by KooHyunhee, a year 12 studentfrom Westfield High (America) 14. TACTILE TEXURETactile texture isthe roughness orsmoothness of asurface.In this image theridges and peaks ofthickly applied paintin works using atechnique calledDetail of Sunflowers by Van im p a s to .Gogh, (1888, oil on canvas)showing texture of impastotechnique. 15. COLOR Refers to specific hues (pure colors without tintor shade, which are created by adding white orblack pigments respectively), and has threepropertiesCHROMA INTENSITY VALUE 16. CHROMA/INTENSITYChrom is a about howvivid colorsare perceived.Essentially,its a measure of a colors purity compared to grey. 17. CHROMA/INTENSITYThe brightness or dullness of a color isreferred to as the colors intensity.A pure color is high intensity, whereas acolor that has been mixed with itscomplementary color is called a lowintensity color. 18. VALUEValue (sometimes called tone) is concerned with the LIGHTNESS and DARKNESS of a color and is achieved by adding white or black to a color to create tints (by adding white) and s ha d e s (by adding black). 19. Irving Penn 20. Artemesia GentileschiJud ith De c a p ita ting Ho lo fe rne sc. 1620 21. Michelangelo Drawing 22. Caravaggio. Sup p e r a t Em m a us . 1601. 23. FORM Form is a 3D objecthaving volume andthickness. The illusion of form(volume andthickness) can beimplied with light andshade, but true 3Dform can be viewedfrom multiple angles,as an object inphysical space. 24. MOVEMENT Refers to a visualsense of motion usedto establish the flowof the compositionfrom one area toanother. In this sculpture theartist makes effectiveuse of movement.The eye is drawnthrough the form bythe angles of the arm,legs and torso, and 25. COMPOSITION The arrangement/placement of arts elements according to visual principles. Examples of formal compositional devices are the rule of thirds, and the golden section. The image at the top depicts a photograph composed using the traditional golden mean compositional framework. In this type of composition, places where the guidelines intersect are key points for placing important elements of your image. The image at the bottom depicts a photograph composed using the rule of thirds compositional framework. 26. PRINCIPLES OF ARTThe ways that art elements are used,arranged, or organized to createartworks.Arts principles are also referred to ascompositional or structural devicesor conventions. They include: 27. BALANCE Refers to the way in which visual weight is distributed throughout the art piece. A composition can be symmetrically or asymmetrically balanced, which means that both sides of an image are visually equal, or unequal, respectively. The top image shows the difference between symmetrical and asymmetrical balance, while the image at the bottom shows approximate symmetry 28. Rose Window. Cathedral of St. John the Divine 29. Christo. Running Fe nc e Dra wing . 1973 30. Edvard Munch 31. RichardDiebenkorn.O c e a n Pa rk N . o29.1970 32. Lucian Freud 33. Rachel Whiteread 34. Alice Neel. Lo nline s s 1970 35. Egon Scheile. Po rtra it o f the Pa inte r A n ntoPe s c hka , 1909 36. Edouard Vuillard 37. Paula Rego.The Fa m ily 1988 38. Andrew Wyeth. Chris tina s World. 1948 39. David Hockney.Yv e s -M rie A le e p . a s 1976 40. Fra Angelico.The Annunc ia tio n.1442. 41. Henri Matisse. Ba the rs with a Turtle . 42. James Ensor.Se lf-Po rtra it Surro und e d by M s ks . a 1899. 43. Thomas Eakins. The A ne w Clinic . 1889g 44. HARMONY When visual elements within an artwork interact well together in an aesthetically pleasing manner. This principle is closely related to unity , and often concerned with combining similar art elements to create a pleasing appearance. 45. CONTRAST The difference betweentwo things. High contrast would bethe difference betweenblack and white or brightyellow and dark purple. Low contrast would bethe difference betweenmiddle value colours andgreys. Contrast can also applyto size, shape, colour andtexture etc. 46. SCALE Scale is the size orapparent size of anobject in relation toother objects andits environment. Relative to otherobjects. 47. PROPORTION Refers to the way that elements and objects work together in an artwork. Using proportion, artists can make sure that the different parts of an artwork make sense within their composition. The Vitruv ia n M n a Le o na rd o Da Vinc i, C. 1 48 7 . Pe n a nd ink with wa s h o ve r m e ta lp o int 48. Kent Twitchell. LA Marathon Mural. 405 Freeway. 49. HIERARCY Refers to the wayobjects and figuresare placed to showrelative importance ofthose objects orfigures. In this image, thecyclist is at the top ofthe visual hierarchy,then the shadows ofthe other cyclists andthen the landscapewhich serves as the 50. Fra Filippo Lippi.Sa int La wre nc eEnthro ne d with Sa intsa nd Do no rs . c. Late 1440s 51. EMPHASIS Emphasis is produced byvisually stressing theimportance of oneelement over another inorder to create a sense ofhierarchy to control wherethe viewer looks first.Areas of emphasis maybe planned usingcompositional devicessuch as the rule ofthirds, or created usingcolor and so on.Henri de Toulouse Lautrec - "Atthe Moulin Rouge", 1892/1895 Oilon Canvas 52. VARIATION A device used to make key areas stand out, achieved by using differing lines, shapes, and colors within the artwork. This principle can be used to create movement and direct the eye of the viewer through the artwork. In this image, the variations displayed are primarily color, shape and texture. 53. VARIATION (CONTD) For example, if a warm orange dot is placed on an artwork that is mostly cool colors, the eye of the viewer is drawn to the orange spot. 54. ABSTRACTION The Riesenrad Refers to the ferris wheel at the deliberate departure Prater, from natural Viennaappearances. Images are simplified, Abstractedmodified or changed image ofto varying degrees to ferris wheel- details emphasize certain removed toqualities or content, or emphasise line and to convey meaning. shape. DIFFERENT than non-representational art. 55. CROPPING When a selectedimage is improved bythe removal of theouter parts to improveframing, accentuatethe subject, mood ordrama of a work, or toalter the aspect ratio. 56. MOVEMENT & RHYTHM By creatingmovement, you areable to control wherethe viewer looks inyour image, and keepthem looking at yourimage for longer. How has the artist ledour eyes around theReptiles, M. C. Escher, 1943, Lithograph. image? 57. Bridget Riley. A st 2.rre1965 58. Beatriz Milhazes 59. What Arts Elements andPrinciples Can You Identify? 60. Cave paintings of Hyenas, Chauvet caves,estimated to be around 32,000 years old. 61. Ansel Adams, The Tetons and theSnake River (1942), photograph. 62. Caravaggio, Davidwith the Head ofGoliath c. 1610, Oilon canvas 63. Banksy, Graffiti Removal, May 2008, spray paint (removed in August 2008) 64. Bridget Riley, Cataract 3, 1967. PVA on canvas 65. M C Escher, Drawing Hands, 1948,Lithograph 66. Meret Oppenheim, Object, 1936, mass produced tea set and fur. 67. Francisco de GoyaThe Sleep of ReasonProduces Monstersc. 1797Etching 68. Ejiri in the Suruga Province, Hokusai, 1832,woodblock print 69. Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937. Oil on canvas 70. Hokusai, Great Wave off Kanagawa, 1832, woodblock print.