Chapter Four Motivation in Organizations. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-2 Chapter Objectives Characterize the nature of.

Download Chapter Four Motivation in Organizations. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-2 Chapter Objectives Characterize the nature of.

Post on 22-Dec-2015

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Chapter Four Motivation in Organizations
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-2 Chapter Objectives Characterize the nature of motivation, including its importance and basic historical perspectives. Describe the need-based perspectives on motivation. Explain the major process-based perspectives on motivation. Describe learning-based perspectives on motivation.
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-3 The Nature of Motivation Motivation The set of forces that leads people to behave in a particular way. The Importance of Motivation Managers strive to motivate the organizations people to perform at high levels. Job performance depends on ability, motivation, and environment. P = M + A + E when: P = performanceM= motivation A = abilityE = environment
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-4 Figure 4.1: The Motivational Framework
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-5 Historical Perspectives on Motivation The Traditional Approach Assumption: Employees are economically motivated to work to earn as much money as they can. Conclusion: Incentive pay systems are a good motivation Assumption: work is inherently unpleasant and the money earned is more important to employees than the nature of the job they are performing. Conclusion: People can be expected to perform any kind of job if they are paid enough.
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-6 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (continued) The Human Relations Approach Suggests that favorable attitudes result in motivation to work hard. Assumption: Employees want to feel useful and important; employees have strong social needs; and those needs are more important than money when motivating employees. Conclusion: Managers should make workers feel important and allow them a modicum of self-direction and self-control in carrying out routine activities.
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-7 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (continued) The Human Resource Approach Assumption: Employees want and are able to make genuine contributions to the organization. Whereas the human relationists believe the illusion of contribution of and participation will enhance motivation, the human resources view assumes the contributions themselves are valuable to both individuals and organizations. Managements task is to: encourage participation create a work environment that makes full use of the human resources available
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-8 Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation Needs-Based Theories Humans are motivated primarily by deficiencies in one or more important needs or need categories. Need theorists have attempted to identify and categorize the needs that are most important to people. The best known need theories are the hierarchy of needs, ERG, and dual-structure theories.
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-9 Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Assumes human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance, as shown in Figure 4.2 on the next slide. Maslow believed each need level must be satisfied before the level above it can become important.
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-10 Figure 4.2: The Hierarchy of Needs
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-11 ERG Theory ERG Theory of Motivation Extends and refines Maslows needs hierarchy concept Describes existence, relatedness, and growth needs In contrast to Maslows approach, ERG theory includes a satisfaction progression component and a frustration-regression component. The satisfaction-progression component suggests that after satisfying one category of needs, a person progresses to the next need. The frustration-regression component suggest that a person who is frustrated by trying to satisfy a higher level of needs eventually will regress to the preceding level.
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-12 Dual-Structure Theory Development of the Theory Frederick Herzberg and his associates developed the dual- structure theory in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Herzberg asked a group of participants in a study to recall times when they felt especially satisfied and motivated by their jobs and times when the felt particularly dissatisfied and unmotivated. To his surprise, Herzberg found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with the two kinds of feelings about work, which he called motivation factors and hygiene factors. Motivation factors -- intrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as achievement and recognition. Hygiene factors -- extrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as pay and job security.
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-13 Figure 4.3: The Dual-Structure Theory of Motivation
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-14 Outcome of the Dual-Structure Theory Motivation Factors Motivation factors, such as achievement and recognition, were often cited as primary causes of satisfaction and motivation. Hygiene Factors Hygiene factors, such as pay, job security, supervisors, and working conditions, could lead to dissatisfaction and lack of motivation.
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-15 Other Important Needs The Need for Achievement The desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past. The Need for Affiliation The need for human companionship. The Need for Power The desire to control the resources in ones environment
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-16 Process-Based Perspectives on Motivation Process-Based Theories Deal with how motivation occurs Rather than attempting to identify motivational stimuli, process perspectives focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained those goals. Useful Process Perspectives Three useful process perspectives are equity theory, expectancy and theory, and goal setting theory.
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-17 Equity Theory of Motivation Equity Theory Is the belief that one is being treated fairly in relation to others; inequity is the belief that one is being treated unfairly in relation to others. Social Comparisons Involves evaluating our own situation in terms of others situations. Four Step Process People in organizations form perceptions about the equity of their treatment through a four-step process.
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-18 Forming Equity Perceptions Step 1: A person evaluates how he or she is being treated by the firm. Step 2: The person forms a perception of how a comparison other is being treated. Step 3: The person compares his or her own circumstances with those of the comparison other to form an impression of either equity or inequity. Step 4: On the strength of this feeling, the person may choose to pursue one or more alternatives.
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-19 Figure 4.4: Responses to Perceptions of Equity and Inequity
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-20 Evaluation and Implications of Equity Theory Managerial Implications Everyone in the organization needs to understand the basis for rewards. People tend to take a multifaceted view of their rewards; they perceive and experience a variety of rewards, some tangible and others intangible. People base their actions on their perceptions of reality. If two or more people make exactly the same salary, but each thinks the other makes more, each will base his or her experiences of equity on the perception, not the reality.
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-21 Expectancy Theory of Motivation The Basic Expectancy Model Suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it. Effort-to-Performance Expectancy A persons perception of the probability that efforts will lead to performance.
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-22 Expectancy Theory of Motivation (continued) Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy An individuals perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes. Outcomes and Valences An outcome is anything that results from performing a particular behavior. Valence is the degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness a particular outcome has for a person.
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-23 Figure 4.5: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-24 The Porter-Lawler Model Since its original conception, the expectancy theory model has been refined and extended many times. Although convention wisdom argues that satisfaction leads to performance, Porter and Lawler argued the reverse: If rewards are adequate, high levels of performance may lead to satisfaction.
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-25 The Porter-Lawler Model (continued) According to the model, at the beginning of the motivational cycle, effort is a function of the value of the potential reward for the employee (its valence) and the perceived effort-reward probability (an expectancy). Effort then combines with abilities, traits, and role perceptions to determine actual performance.
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-26 Figure 4.6: The Porter-Lawler Model
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-27 Evaluation and Implications of Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory offers several important guidelines for the practicing manager. 1.Determine the primary outcomes each employee wants. 2.Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. 3.Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible. 4.Link desired outcomes and desired performance. 5.Analyze the situation for conflicting expectancies. 6.Make sure the rewards are large enough. 7.Make sure the overall system is equitable for everyone.
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-28 Learning-Based Perspectives on Motivation Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that results from direct or indirect experience. It is a key component in employee motivation. In any organization, employees quickly learn which behaviors are rewarded and which are ignored or punished. Thus, learning plays a critical role in maintaining motivated behavior.
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-29 How Learning Occurs The Traditional View: Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a simple form of learning the links a conditioned response with an unconditional stimulus. Learning theorists soon recognized that although classical conditioning offered some interesting insights into the learning process, it was inadequate as an explanation for human learning.
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-30 How Learning Occurs (continued) The Contemporary View: Learning as a Cognitive Process Contemporary learning theory generally views learning as a cognitive process; that is, it assumes people are conscious, active participants in how they learn. One of the most well-known contemporary views of learning is reinforcement theory.
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-31 Reinforcement Theory and Learning Based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior that results in pleasant consequences is more likely to be repeated, and behavior that results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. Assumes people consciously explore different behaviors and systematically choose those that result in the most desirable outcome.
  • Slide 32
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-32 Types of Reinforcement in Organizations Positive Reinforcement A reward or other desirable consequence that a person receives after exhibiting behavior. Avoidance, or negative reinforcement The opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior.
  • Slide 33
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-33 Types of Reinforcement in Organizations (continued) Extinction Decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior Punishment Is an unpleasant, or aversive, consequence that results from behavior.
  • Slide 34
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-34 Table 4.1: Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Slide 35
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-35 Related Aspects of Learning Social Learning Occurs when people observe the behaviors or others, recognize the consequences, and alter their own behaviors as a result. Organizational Behavior Modification Or OB mod, is the application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational settings.
  • Slide 36
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-36 Figure 4.7: Steps in Organizational Behavior Modification Source: Steps in Organizational Behavior Modification from Personnel (July-August 1974). Copyright 1974 American Management Association. Reproduced with permission of the American Management Association via Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Slide 37
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4-37 The Effectiveness of OB Mod OB Mod is a valuable method for improving employee motivation in many situations. Not all applications have worked. Managers frequently have only limited means for providing meaningful reinforcement for their employees. If OB mod works for a while, the impact of the positive reinforcement may wane one the novelty has worn off, and employees may come to view it as a routine part of the compensation system.
  • Slide 38
  • Copy...

Recommended

View more >