Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15–1 Chapter Fifteen Psychology and Health

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 151 Chapter Fifteen Psychology and Health Slide 2 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 152 Did You Know That Happy or joyous events can be a source of stress? The emotional stress of divorce or even college examinations may damage your health? Optimistic people have fewer postoperative complications following coronary artery bypass surgery than pessimistic people? Slide 3 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 153 Did You Know That (cont.) Chronic anger may be harmful to your heart? Two modifiable behaviors, smoking and diet, account for nearly two of three cancer deaths in the United States? Regular exercise increases resilience to stress? Writing about traumatic experiences may boost the bodys immune system? Slide 4 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 154 Module 15.1 Stress: What It Is and What It Does to the Body Slide 5 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 155 Module 15.1 Preview Questions What is health psychology? What is stress, and what are the major sources of stress? How does the body respond to stress? How does stress affect the immune system? What is burnout? What psychological factors buffer the effects of stress? Slide 6 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 156 Health Psychology Study of the interrelationships between psychology and physical health. Especially concerned with effects of stress. Stress: Pressure or demand placed on an organism to adjust or adapt. Distress: An internal state of physical or mental pain or suffering. Slide 7 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 157 Slide 8 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 158 Sources of Stress: Hassles Annoyances of daily lives that impose a stressful burden. Accumulation of daily hassles can lead to chronic stress. State of persistent tension or pressure. Slide 9 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 159 Slide 10 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1510 Sources of Stress: Life Events Major changes in life circumstances can lead to lead to stress. Can be positive or negative life events. May contribute to physical health problems Impact on health varies with: Ones coping skills. Ones attitude. How one appraises or evaluations a life event. Slide 11 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1511 Sources of Stress: Frustration and Conflict Frustration: The negative emotional state that occurs when our efforts toward a goal are blocked. Conflict: State of tension brought about by opposing motives operating simultaneously. Slide 12 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1512 Figure 15.1: Types of Conflict Slide 13 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1513 Sources of Stress: Traumatic Stressors Potentially life-threatening events. May lead to development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adjustment problems associated with PTSD: Avoidance of cues associated with the trauma. Reexperiencing the traumatic event. Impaired functioning. Heightened arousal. Emotional numbing. Slide 14 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1514 Sources of Stress: Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) Characterized by impatience, competitiveness, and aggressiveness. Type B pattern: slower, more relaxed pace in life. Type A is associated with a higher risk of heart disease. Slide 15 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1515 Sources of Stress: Acculturative Stress Demands immigrants experience adjusting to a new culture. Pressure to acculturate involves adapting to the values, linguistic preferences, and customs of the host or dominant culture. Successful adjustment depends on a number of factors. Economic opportunities, language proficiency, social network connections. Slide 16 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1516 General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye) Alarm Stage Fight-or-flight response Strong psychological, physiological arousal Resistance Stage ( or adaptation stage) Attempt to return to normal state Exhaustion Stage Resources seriously depleted Diseases of adaptation Slide 17 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1517 Figure 15.2: Level of Resistance During the Stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome Slide 18 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1518 Stress and the Endocrine System Chain reaction to stress Hypothalamus: corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) Pituitary gland: adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal cortex: corticosteroids Adrenal medulla: epinephrine, norepinephrine Slide 19 Figure 15.3: Bodys Response to Stress Slide 20 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1520 Stress and the Immune System Immune system is our primary defense against disease and infection. Immunity develops through: Antigen memory Vaccinations Stress weakens the immune system. Slide 21 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1521 Burnout State of physical and emotional exhaustion Results from: Excessive job demands Caregiving responsibilities Other stressful commitments Influenced by: Role conflict: competing demands for time Role overload: cant say no Role ambiguity: unsure of expectations Slide 22 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1522 Slide 23 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1523 Figure 15.4: Psychological Moderators of Stress Slide 24 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1524 Psychological Hardiness Cluster of traits that may buffer the effects of stress. Three key traits: Commitment Openness to challenge Internal locus of control Slide 25 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1525 Positive Psychology A developing movement in psychology, founded by Martin Seligman. Psychology should focus on the study of human virtues and assets, rather than weaknesses and deficits. Slide 26 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1526 Module 15.2 Psychological Factors in Physical Illness Slide 27 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1527 Module 15.2 Preview Questions How are psychological factors linked to the health of our heart and circulatory system? What roles do psychological factors play in the development of cancer? What roles do psychological factors play in other health conditions, such as asthma, headaches, and ulcers? Slide 28 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1528 Slide 29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1529 Figure 15.5: Americas Leading Killers Slide 30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1530 Figure 15.6: Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Slide 31 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1531 Figure 15.7: Risks of Death Among Current and Former Smokers Compared to Never- Smokers Slide 32 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1532 Figure 15.8: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Death Rates Due to Coronary Heart Disease in U.S. Slide 33 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1533 Emotions and Your Heart Emotional patterns associated with heart disease Type A: hostile, chronic anger Persistent anxiety Persistent emotional arousal Damage to cardiovascular system by stress hormones Slide 34 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1534 Cancer A disease in which body cells exhibit uncontrolled growth. Formation of malignant tumors which damage body organs, systems Many causes But two of three cancer deaths in U.S. attributable to smoking and diet. Slide 35 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1535 Slide 36 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1536 Risk Factors for Cancer Smoking Diet and alcohol consumption Sun exposure Stress Slide 37 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1537 Stress and Other Physical Disorders Asthma Headaches Peptic ulcers Slide 38 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1538 Module 15.3 Application: Taking the Distress Out of Stress Slide 39 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1539 Module 15.3 Preview Question What are some ways of taking the distress out of stress? Slide 40 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1540 Managing Stress Levels Reduce daily hassles Know your limits Follow a reasonable schedule Take frequent breaks Develop time-management skills Learn to prioritize Slide 41 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1541 Various Techniques Develop relaxation skills Take care of your body Gather information Expand social network Prevent burnout Replace stress-inducing thoughts with stress- busting thoughts Dont keep upsetting feelings bottled up Slide 42 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1542 Control Type A Behavior Take things slower Read books for enjoyment Leave your computer at home Avoid rushing meals Enjoy activities Develop relaxing interests Set realistic daily goals </p>

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