Chapter Fifteen Psychological Disorders. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 2 Question Defining abnormality often takes into.

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  • Chapter Fifteen

    Psychological Disorders

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | *

    QuestionDefining abnormality often takes into account which of the following criteria?Statistical infrequencyNorm violationPersonal sufferingAll of the above

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | *

    AnswerChoice d is correct.

    Models of abnormality consider statistical infrequency, norm violation, and personal suffering as criteria for distinguishing between normal and abnormal behavior. Each of these criteria alone, however, would not necessarily be sufficient to label an individuals behavior as abnormal. (Chapter 15, What Is Abnormal? section)

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    QuestionWhich of the following individuals is experiencing problems to the degree that these problems are causing an impairment in functioning?Joe, who has a hard time getting out of bed on Mondays, but makes it to work anywayKaren, who gets up an hour earlier each day to give her extra time to alphabetize the items in her kitchenLarry, who experiences intense anxiety in social situations, but still manages to work as a waiterMike, whose drinking has progressed to the point that his wife has left him, hes lost his job, and he is homeless

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    AnswerChoice d is correct.

    Impairment in functioning involves a situation in which a persons thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors cause problems in fulfilling appropriate and expected roles at home, socially, at school, and/or at work. Mike is the only individual in the list who has suffered impaired functioning as a consequence of his behaviors. (Chapter 15, Behavior in Context: A Practical Approach section)

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    QuestionWhich of the following factors do you think plays the largest role in causing psychological disorders?Biological factorsPsychological factorsSociocultural factorsOther factors

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    AnswerPolling question: no correct response

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    QuestionDr. Flipper is a psychologist who adheres to psychodynamic views of the development of psychopathology. Which of the following best summarizes his likely explanation for a patients problems with depression?You are depressed because you have a chemical imbalance in your brain.You are depressed because you have unexpressed angry feelings towards your mother that you turned inward against yourself.You are depressed because your culture permits an expression of depressive symptoms as acceptable in a person of your gender.You are depressed because of genetic predisposition to depression that you inherited from your parents.

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    AnswerChoice b is correct.

    Psychodynamic models emphasize unconscious conflicts, drives, impulses, and emotions as causal factors in the development of psychopathology. Specifically, the psychodynamic model of depression posits that depression is due to anger turned inward. (Chapter 15, The Biopsychosocial Model section)

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    QuestionYour professor is talking about a model that seeks to explain the development of psychopathology. She is talking about how some people are born with a predisposition to certain disorders and, consequently, might end up with a full-blown disorder even in the face of relatively minor life stressors. Which model is she describing?The biopsychosocial modelThe psychodynamic modelThe diathesis-stress modelThe social-cognitive model

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    AnswerChoice c is correct.

    The diathesis-stress model of psychopathology suggests that both predispositions or vulnerabilities to certain disorders and situational factors (such as life stress) combine to result in the appearance of psychological disorders. (Chapter 15, Diathesis-Stress as an Integrative Explanation section)

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    QuestionYour roommate has an intense, irrational fear of spiders. With which of the following disorders might she be diagnosed?PhobiaGeneralized anxiety disorderPanic disorderObsessive-compulsive disorder

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    AnswerChoice a is correct.

    Phobias are anxiety disorders that involve strong, irrational fears of specific objects or situations. The persons reaction to the object or situation is typically more extreme than is warranted in the situation and the person typically realizes that his/her fears are groundless. (Chapter 15, Types of Anxiety Disorders section)

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    QuestionMonk, the defective detective on the USA network show of the same name, is extremely concerned with order, symmetry, and cleanliness. He engages in repetitive behaviors, such as washing, rearranging items, and avoiding stepping on cracks. He likely has which of the following disorders?Panic disorderGeneralized anxiety disorderObsessive-compulsive disorderSchizophrenia

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    AnswerChoice c is correct.

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by both obsessions, intrusive, persistent, and disturbing thoughts, and compulsions, repetitive behaviors. The obsessions typically cause high levels of anxiety, which can be reduced by engaging in the compulsive behaviors. (Chapter 15, Types of Anxiety Disorders section)

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    QuestionMatthew is a four-year-old who has an intense, irrational fear of dogs. This fear developed because Matthew repeatedly watched his parents respond to the presence of dogs with fear and avoidance behaviors. The most obvious causal factor in the development of Matthews phobia of dogs isclassical conditioning.operant conditioning.observational learning.covert conditioning.

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | *

    AnswerChoice c is correct.

    Observational learning, learning by watching others, is one mechanism through which phobias may develop. In this instance, Matthew is learning that dogs are to be feared and avoided by watching and later mimicking the behavior of his parents. (Chapter 15, Linkages: Anxiety Disorders and Learning section)

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    QuestionWhich of the following individuals is at greatest risk for suicide, based strictly on demographic factors?Alan, an 80-year-old manBetty, a 72-year-old womanChristopher, an 18-year-old young manDonna, a 35-year-old woman

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    AnswerChoice a is correct.

    In the United States, suicide is most common among individuals 65 and older, especially males. (Chapter 15, Depressive Disorders section)

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    QuestionA(n) ____________ is a false sensory experience, whereas a(n) ___________ is a false belief. Both are symptoms seen in schizophrenia.delusion; hallucinationhallucination; delusionobsession; delusionhallucination; obsession

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    AnswerChoice b is correct.

    Hallucinations involve the experience of nonexistent sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches. Delusions, in contrast, involve beliefs not based in reality and can include persecutory delusions and delusions of grandeur. (Chapter 15, Symptoms of Schizophrenia section)

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    QuestionDelusions and hallucinations in the context of schizophrenia are sometimes referred to as ____________ symptoms.positivenegativeaffectivecatatonic

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    AnswerChoice a is correct.

    Positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, involve excesses or additions to a persons mental life. They are the extra things that individuals with schizophrenia see and do and think that normal people dont see and do and think. (Chapter 15, Categorizing Schizophrenia section)

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    QuestionYour next-door neighbor has schizophrenia. It is likely that he has a problem in neurotransmitter systems in his brain that involve ____________.serotoninGABAnorepinephrinedopamine

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    AnswerChoice d is correct.

    Excess dopamine has been implicated in the development of schizophrenia, particularly with respect to the appearance of positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medications used to treat schizophrenia reduce hallucinations and delusions and have the effect of decreasing levels of dopamine in the brain. (Chapter 15, Causes of Schizophrenia section)

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    QuestionRecently, several CEOs of major corporations have been put in prison for illegal actions that included shameless disregard for and violation of other peoples rights. Which of the following personality disorders might be a fitting diagnosis for these individuals?Paranoid personality disorderHistrionic personality disorderNarcissistic personality disorderAntisocial personality disorder

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    AnswerChoice d is correct.

    Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a long-term, persistent pattern of impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, and criminal behavior. It typically begins in childhood and early adolescence and has also been termed psychopathy and sociopathy. (Chapter 15, Personality Disorders section)

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    QuestionThe core characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involve all of the following EXCEPTinattention.hyperactivity.oppositionality.impulsivity.

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    AnswerChoice c is correct.

    ADHD is characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention (distractibility), hyperactivity, and impulsivity (acting without thinking). (Chapter 15, Psychological Disorders of Childhood section)

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