Appendicular Skeleton. Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Appendicular Skeleton </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was made from bones that were in the central part of the human body The appendicular skeleton includes bones of the limbs and supporting elements that connect them to the trunk It has a great ability to change the abilities and environment for a human being </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton was a system that was designed to protect and house vital organs Its primary uses were for keeping important organs safe The appendicular skeleton is a system that is designed to allow movement and flexibility for an organism It is generally the reason you can experience the world around you </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular is composed of four different sections Each section is used to manipulate the environment around the individual Each section is composed of entirely different bones that will allow the individual the best chance to survive </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The pectoral girdle articulates the upper limbs around the body The upper limbs are used to manipulate tools and increase balance The pelvic girdle handles weight load and helps move the lower limbs The lower limbs allow for movement and support </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Pectoral Girdle Each arm articulates with the trunk at the pectoral girdle It consists of two broad flat scapulae and two clavicles The movements of the scapulae and the clavicles position the shoulder joints and provide base for arm movement </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Pectoral Girdle The clavicles are S shaped bones that originate at the superior lateral border of the manubrium These bones are relatively fragile and are the main reason that people have to wear shoulder pads when they play various contact sports You can feel the clavicle move against your sternum when you raise or lower your shoulder joints </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Pectoral Girdle The anterior body of each scapula forms a broad triangle The muscles that attach to the scapula move the shoulder, rotator cuff and the humorous This allows for a large range of movements of the shoulder and upper arm </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Glenohumeral Joint Where the scapula and the upper arm bones meet is called the glenohumeral joint At the glenohumeral joint the scapula articulates with the humerus, the proximal bone of the upper limb Both bones are set an anchored in the joint with a mixture of connective tissue and muscle tissue </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Glenohumeral Joint The bones of the shoulder stay together with the help of the rotator cuff The muscles and tendons of the rotator cuff are designed to help support ant help the shoulder stay in place However, repeated motions (especially overhead) can damage the muscle and tendon that hold the glenohumeral joint together </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Upper Limbs The upper limbs are designed for the ability to use and utilize our hands Unlike most organisms they are not used to balance on the ground They can be free to use during any activity </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Upper Limbs The bones of the upper arm consist of four separate sections The humerus (upper arm) The radius and ulna (lower arm) The carpals (wrist) The metacarpals and the phalanges (hands) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Humerus The humerus is a long bone that is found in the upper arm region of the body This bone sits inside the shoulder and articulates to create all of the movements of the upper arm It also interacts with the bones of the lower arm to create a twisting motion of the forearm </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Humerus The most prominent feature of this bone is the head, which is a large projection on the proximal end The large head will rotate when the muscles of the rotator cuff pull it in different directions The other end of the humerus articulates at the condyle This section will rotate with the radius and ulna </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Radius and Ulna The radius and the ulna are parallel bones that support the forearm It is often easy to get these two confused However, the radius always lines up with the thumb This is because when something is rad you give it a thumbs up If that does not help, then the knob you feel in your elbow is the ulna </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Radius and Ulna The ulna has two major features that allow the elbow to move The trochlear notch is where the humerus sits and articulates The olecranon is the projection that is posterior of the elbow </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Radius and Ulna The radius is has two major features that allows the radius to move with the elbow The radial head articulates with the end of the humerus The ulnar notch is near the wrist and allows the forearm to twist </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Radius and Ulna The radius and the ulna interact very interestingly when interacting with the humerus They will only bend one direction when acting with the humerus However they will rotate over each other to allow the forearm to twist at the wrist </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Carpal Bones The wrist is a very interesting section of the upper limb The wrist allows movement on two different axis Side to side and forward back The twisting motion that is seen in the lower arm is really dependent on the radius and ulna It has eight bones that will all articulate to allow a really wide range of movement </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Carpal Bones Out of the eight carpal bones, four are considered distal (far) and four are considered proximal (near) The four proximal bones are the Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Carpal Bones The remaining four bones are considered distal (far) The distal bones are the Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Carpal Bones Breakage generally happens when a person tries to stop their own body weight The bones of the wrist and distal ends of the radius and ulna are all susceptible to damage when someone breaks their wrist This generally should be fixed quickly because small changes in bone structure can cause large amounts of pain </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Metacarpals and Phalanges There are five different metacarpal bones These bones articulate with the carpals to move the palm of your hand These bones make up the majority of your palm </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Metacarpals and Phalanges The metacarpals are give roman numerals to define which one them Metacarpal I is located just below the thumb From there they increase in number across the palm of the hand Roman numeral I - Radius </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Metacarpals and Phalanges Distal to the metacarpals is the phalanges Each finger has three different phalanges They are proximal, middle and distal The thumb (pollex) has two phalanges Proximal and distal </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> The Pelvic Girdle The pelvic girdle consists of two very strong hip bones It often is included in a structure called the pelvis that includes the sacrum and the coccyx These bones are designed to carry the weight of the body and move the body </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> The Pelvic Girdle The pelvic bones consist of three different parts The ilium is a the superior and broad part to the hip bone. This provides attachment points for muscles The ischium is posterior lower section to the hip bone When seated, this part supports your weight The pubis is the anterior lower section to the hip bone </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> The Pelvis The pelvis consists of the hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx They are held together by an extensive collection of cartilage These bones are important for providing support to everything above them and making sure your body can move while upright </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> The Pelvis Males and females have many differences in the pelvis These are due to the fact males are generally heavier and females bear children Some of the major differences include A broader pubic angle (greater than 100 degrees) A wider more circular pelvic outlet An enlarged pelvic outlet </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The Legs The legs contain the large bones of the lower body These will be responsible for the movement of the body They are also designed ot hold a large amount of weight When standing on your feet a large amount of weight is being placed on a small surface of your leg bones </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> The Legs The legs consist of four bones The femur is the bone of the thigh The patella is more commonly known as the kneecap The tibia and the fibula combine to make the bones of the shin </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> The Femur The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body It articulates at the hip and at the knee It is often said that this bone is the most painful thing in the body to break Remember pain is subjective http://youtu.be/L5W6JyF7br8?t=4m10s </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> The Femur The femur has a pronounced head that articulates at the pelvis Then the femoral shaft connects the pelvis to the knee The patellar surface is the area where the femur articulates at the patella </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Video Snapping your femur can come from direct contact from a side angle Mostly happens from older age https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=PEgkuoD5VsU https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=PEgkuoD5VsU https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=_LJCgGq946c https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=_LJCgGq946c </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> The Patella The patella is a bone located within the patella tendon It is used to protect the delicate inner workings of the knee Direct blows to the knee can be diverted by the patella </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> The Patella The patella articulates at the patellar surface in the femur This allows the patella to track up and down in its own notch However if the patella tracks sideways in the notch, there is friction and rubbing This is commonly referred to as runners knee This can be because of improper shoes on hard or slanted surfaces </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Tibia and Fibula The tibia and the fibula are the bones of the lower leg These two bones articulate with the knee and the ankle/foot The tibia is commonly known as a shinbone Remember Tibia = Toes The fibula posterior to the tibia </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Tibia and Fibula The tibia is the major weight bearing bone of the shin The fibula has such a small diameter because it does not help transfer weight to the ankle or foot However, it is an important bone to attach muscles to move the ankle and foot </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Tarsal Bones The tarsal bones make up the ankle and the upper section of the foot These sections are crucial to be able to walk They transfer the weight from the body to the ground and vice versa These bones are significantly thicker and stronger than their counterparts in the wrist </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Tarsal Bones There are 7 tarsal bones that make up the foot and the ankle We will only be learning a few The talus transfers weight from the legs to the rest of the foot Talus = Top = Tibia The calcaneus is commonly referred to as the heel Most of the weight of the body is transferred to the ground through the heel </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Metatarsals and Phalanges The metatarsals are the bones of the middle foot These bones make up the foot beginning in the middle of your arch These bones articulate with the metatarsals </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Metatarsals and Phalanges The metatarsals are give a roman numeral system similar to the metacarpals The first metatarsal is the bone associated with the big toe From there we label across II - V </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Metatarsals and Phalanges The phalanges are the bones of the toes Much like the fingers, there are proximal middle and distal sections to each toe However, the great toe (big toe) is given the name hallux This toe only has two bones </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLGfx4aKPE8 </li> </ul>

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