Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton. BIO 210 Lab Instructor: Dr. Rebecca Clarke. Appendicular Skeleton. Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles Pectoral (shoulder) Pelvic. Appendicular Skeleton. Figure 81. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • BIO 210 LabInstructor: Dr. Rebecca ClarkeChapter 8:The Appendicular Skeleton

  • Appendicular Skeleton Allows us to move and manipulate objectsIncludes all bones besides axial skeleton:the limbs the supportive girdlesPectoral (shoulder)Pelvic

  • Appendicular Skeleton Figure 81

  • Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdlePositions shoulder jointsConnects the arms to the body Provides base for muscle attachmentHelps move upper limbs

  • Pectoral Girdle Figure 82a

  • Pectoral Girdle Consists of:2 clavicles 2 scapulaeConnects with axial skeleton only at the manubrium (clavicle articulations)

  • ClavicleAlso called collarboneLong, S-shaped boneOriginates at manubrium (sternal end)Articulates with scapula (acromial end)Relatively fragile so fractures common

  • ClavicleSternal End: Square, flat surfaceArticulates with manubrium; only ones between axial skeleton and pectoral girdleAcromial End:Flatter, broader endArticulates with acromion of scapulaFigure 82b, c

  • Scapula Also called shoulder bladeBroad, flat triangleArticulates with arm and collarboneSkeletal muscles support/position Extreme mobilityNot much strength

  • Scapula: Posterior SurfaceBodyBroad, flat, triangular areaHas 3 borders/ marginsSuperiorMedialLateralFigure 83c

  • Scapula: Posterior SurfaceSpineLarge ridge across posterior surfaceShoulder bladeSupraspinous fossaDepression superior to spineInfraspinous fossaDepression inferior to spineFigure 83c

  • Scapula: Posterior SurfaceAcromionLarge, posterior extension at lateral end of spineArticulates with clavicle (acromial end)Figure 83c

  • Scapula: Lateral ViewGlenoid fossa (cavity)Cup-shaped, lateral depressionArticulates with humerusForms shoulder jointFigure 83c

  • Scapula: Lateral ViewCoracoid processSmaller, anterior projection superior to glenoid cavityNear clavicle vs coronoid process on mandible near nose)Figure 83c

  • Scapula: Anterior SurfaceSubscapular fossaDepression on smooth, anterior side of bodyFigure 83a

  • Bones of the Upper LimbsBrachium (arm)Antebrachium (forearm)UlnaRadiusCarpals (wrist)Metacarpals (hand)Phalanges (fingers)

  • HumerusOnly bone in brachium (arm)Extends from scapula to elbowArticulates with pectoral girdleon proximal end (head) with glenoid fossa of scapulaon distal end with radius and ulna (bones of antebrachium)

  • HumerusHeadLarge, ball-shaped structure on proximal endGreater tubercleLarger, rounded projection on lateral/posterior surface of epiphysisLesser tubercleSmaller projection on medial/anterior surfaceIntertubercular grooveSeparates tuberclesFigure 84

  • HumerusAnatomical neckNarrow groove between base of head and tuberclesMargin of joint capsuleSurgical neckAt metaphysisWhere fractures often occurDeltoid tuberosityRough ridge on-anterior surface of shaftWhere deltoid muscle attachesFigure 84

  • HumerusCondyle= rounded projection for muscle attachmentDistal epiphysis where humerus articulates with radius and ulnaKnuckles on anterior surface of humerusFigure 84

  • HumerusLateral epicondyleMedial epicondyleMore prominent than lateral oneTrochlea (pulley or spool)In center of condyle (middle knuckle)Where trochlear notch of ulna rotates during forearm flexionCapitulumForms a cap over the radiusFigure 84

  • HumerusCoronoid fossaOn anterior surfaceArticulates with coronoid process of ulnaOlecranon fossaOn posterior surfaceArticulates with olecranon of ulnaFigure 84

  • Antebrachium (Forearm)Consists of 2 long bones:Ulna (medial)Radius (lateral)RotatesSite of radial pulseFigure 85

  • UlnaOlecranon (process)Large, curved projection (like cobra head) on proximal endU for ulnaArticulates in olecranon fossa of humerusSuperior lip of trochlear notchPoint of elbowFigure 85

  • UlnaTrochlear notchAnterior curved surface of proximal epiphysisArticulates with trochlea of humerusCoronoid processInferior lip of trochlear notchArticulates in coronoid fossa of humerusFigure 85

  • UlnaHeadMuch smaller, distal epiphysis (near wrist)Articulates with radium and carpal (wrist) bonesStyloid processMedial pointed extension at distal epiphysisOn posterior, lateral surface of headFigure 85

  • Ulna: Articulations with the HumerusForearm extended: Olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed:Coronoid process enters coronoid fossa

  • RadiusHeadDisc-shaped proximal epiphysisArticulates with humerusNeckNarrow region between head and tuberosityRadial tuberosityStructure at proximal end of diaphysis below neckMarks attachment site of biceps brachii muscleFigure 85

  • RadiusShaftCurves and broadensDistal portion much larger than distal portion of ulnaStyloid processLateral pointed extension at distal epiphysisStabilizes wrist jointFigure 85

  • Carpal Bones Allow wrist to bend and twist

    8 bonesSam likes to push the toy car hard.

  • Carpal BonesScaphoidLunateTriquetrumPisiform TrapeziumTrapezoidCapitateHamate

  • Wrist and Hand BonesFigure 86

  • Metacarpal Bones5 long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medialArticulate with proximal phalanges

  • Phalanges (Phalanx=singular)Finger bonesI (lateral)Pollex (thumb):2 phalanges (proximal, distal) II - V3 phalanges (proximal, medial or middle, distal)

  • Pelvic GirdleFunctionsWeight-bearingLocomotionBones more massive than those of pectoral girdleStrong to bear body weight

  • Pelvic GirdleMade up of 2 hip bones (coxal bones or pelvic bones)Each hip bone is made up of 3 fused bones:Ilium (articulates with sacrum)IschiumPubis

  • Pelvic GirdleFigure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: IliumLargest hip boneSuperior part of coxaeFused to ischium (posteriorly) and pubis (anteriorly)Articulates with sacrum attaches pelvic girdle to axial skeleton Figure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: IliumIliac crestSuperior borderAnterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS)Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS)Figure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: IliumIliac fossaDepression on anterior aspectSacroiliac jointBetween posterior superior and inferior spines; where ilium and sacrum articulateGreater sciatic notchInferior to PIISPassageway for large sciatic nerveFigure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: IschiumPosterior-inferior part of coxaeIschial spineInferior to greater sciatic notchAt posterior-superior end Lesser sciatic notchInferior to ischial spine Ischial tuberosityThickened posterior-inferior partBears body weight when seated (sit bone)Figure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: PubisAnterior-inferior part of coxaePubic symphysisJoint where anterior medial surfaces of pubic bones are interconnect by fibrocartilage padLimits movement between pubic bones of left and right hipbonesFigure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: AcetabulumAlso called the hip socketLarge, concave socket on lateral surface of os coxae Meeting point of ilium, ischium, and pubis Articulates with head of femurFigure 87

  • Pelvic Girdle: Obturator ForamenLarge space encircled by pubis and ischiumClosed by sheet of collagen fibersProvides base for hip musclesFigure 87

  • PelvisConsists of:2 hip bonesSacrumCoccyx (of axial skeleton)Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

  • PelvisFigure 88

  • Pelvic OpeningsPelvic inlet (anterior) space enclosed by pelvic brim Pelvic outlet opening bounded by coccyx and ischial tuberositiesFigure 89

  • Pubic AngleInferior angle between pubic bonesFigure 810

  • Bones of the Lower LimbsFemur (thigh)Patella (kneecap)Tibia and fibula (leg)Tarsals (ankle)Metatarsals (foot)Phalanges (toes)

  • FemurLongest, heaviest boneTransfers body weight to groundArticulates with:coxae at acetabulumtibia at knee jointFigure 811

  • FemurHeadLarge, round proximal endArticulates at acetabulumNeckNarrow connector between head and shaftJoins shaft at angleFigure 811

  • FemurGreater trochanterLarge process at superior end of shaftLesser trochanterSmaller process inferior to neck on medial /posterior side Figure 811

  • FemurLateral condyleLarge, rounded, lateral projection at distal epiphysisArticulates with lateral condyle of tibiaMedial condyleLarge, rounded, medial projection at distal epiphysisArticulates with medial condyle of tibia Figure 811

  • FemurIntercondylar fossaDepression between condyles on posterior sideFigure 811

  • FemurPatellar surfaceFlattened area between condyles on anterior sideFigure 811

  • PatellaLarge sesamoid boneForms within tendon of quadriceps femoris (extends/straightens the knee)Figure 812

  • TibiaLarger, medial bone; supports body weightAlso called the shinboneFigure 813

  • TibiaLateral condyleLateral projection at proximal epiphysisArticulates with lateral condyle of femurMedial condyleMedial projection at proximal epiphysisArticulates with medial condyle of femurFigure 813

  • TibiaTibial tuberosityRoughened area on anterior surfaceInferior to condylesAttachment for patellar ligament

    Figure 813

  • TibiaAnterior marginRidge that begins at tibial tuberosity and extends distally along anterior surface (shin bone)Medial malleolus (little mallet)Projection on medial side at distal epiphysisFigure 813

  • FibulaSlender, lateral bone of lower legFigure 813

  • FibulaHeadArticulates with proximal tibiaLateral malleolusProjection on lateral side at distal epiphysisArticulates with distal tibiaProvides lateral stability to ankle Figure 813

  • Tarsal Bones Allow ankle to bend and twist

    7 bones

  • Ankle and Foot BonesFigure 814a

  • Tarsal BonesTalusCalcaneousNavicularCuboid

    Cuneiforms (3)

    Note: movement more restricted than wrist/hand

  • Metatarsal Bones5 long bones of the foot Numbered IV from medial (big toe) to lateralArticulate with proximal phalanges

  • PhalangesToe bonesI (lateral)Hallus (big toe):2 phalanges (proximal, distal) II - V3 phalanges (proximal, medial or middle, distal)

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