Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton

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Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle Describe and identify the bones of the pelvic girdle. Appendicular Skeleton. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Chapter 8 The Appendicular SkeletonCourse objectives:List the bones of the appendicular skeletonDescribe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdleDescribe and identify the bones of the pelvic girdle

  • Appendicular SkeletonIncludes the bones of the upper limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle.

    Includes the bones of the lower limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pelvic girdle.

  • Pectoral Girdle scapula shoulder blade-(triangular flat bone) articulates with humerus of arm at the glenoid fossa

    clavicle collar bone" -flat bone articulates with the acromion process of scapula and the manubrium of the sternum, thus forming the only bony link with the axial skeleton and pectoral appendicular skeleton

  • ScapulaThin triangular flat bone that forms the bulk of the shoulder

    Connects to the arm at the humerus via glenoid fossa

    Connects to the clavicle at the acromion process

  • Scapula landmarksSupraspinous and infraspinous fossaSuprascapular fossaAcromionCoracoid processGlenoid cavityLateral and medial border

  • Clavicle landmarksAcromial endSternal endConoid tubercleCostoclavicular tuberosity

  • The clavicle

  • The Upper LimbConsists of 30 bonesGrouped into bones of the arm, forearm and handArm = HumerusForearm = Radius and UlnaHand = Carpals (8), metacarpals (5) and phalanges (5)

  • Arm or Brachium

  • Humerus landmarksHead and body of humerusGreater and Lesser tuberclesAnatomical neck and Surgical neckMedial and lateral supracondylar ridgesMedial and lateral epicondyleOlecranon and radial fossaCoronoid processDeltoid tuberosityCapitulumTrochlea

  • Forearm antebrachiumConsists of the Radius (lateral) and Ulna (medial).Both are connected along their length by a ligament (interosseous membrane)

  • Radius landmarksHead, neck and shaftRadial tuberosityUlnar notchStyloid processNutrient foramen

  • Ulna landmarksOlecranon processCoronoid processTrochlear notchRadial notchHead of the ulnaStyloid process of ulna

  • The HandConsists of:Carpals (8) wristMetacarpals (5) palmPhalanges (5) fingers

  • Carpal bones Eight bones makeup the wrist

  • Carpal bones

  • Metacarpals and PhalangesThese bones are not named individually but are numbered 1-5.The thumb pollex is number 1.They are all long bonesThe base of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones at their base and the phalanges at their head.The phalanges consist of a proximal, middle and distal phalanx in all but the thumb .

  • Metacarpals and Phalanges

  • The Pelvic GirdleThe hips form a much more solid and stable connection for the lower limbs to the axial skeleton than the pectoral girdle is to the upper limbs. The pelvic girdle is formed by the coxal bones (a.k.a. hip bones, os coxae) which fuse posteriorly with the sacrum. The coxal bones are formed by the fusion of three separate bones ( ilium, ischium and pubis) during growth.

  • Os Coxae Hip bonesFormed by the fusion of three bones-1. ilium, 2. ischium, and 3. pubis

    Attaches to the lower limb and spine at sacroiliac joint

    Supports the pelvic organs or viscera

    Attached to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments

  • Os coxae landmarksIliac crestAnterior superior and ant. inferior iliac spinePosterior superior and post. inferior iliac spineGreater and lesser sciatic notchIliac fossaIschial spine and tuberosity; ramus of ischiumObturator foramenSuperior and inferior ramus of pubisPubic symphysis and pubic archAcetabulum

  • Male vs Female Os coxaeSignificant differences exist between the male and female pelvis. pelvic outlet is enlarged due to in part greater separation of ischial spines less curvature of sacrum and coccyx which in males arcs into pelvic outlet wider more circular pelvic inlet relatively broad, low pelvisA broader pubic angle in between pubic bones > 100

  • Male Female

  • True vs. False pelvisFalse pelvis = area within entire pelvic girdleTrue pelvis = area below pelvic brim

  • Lower limbConsists of:

    Femur Thigh = hip to the knee

    Tibia and fibula Leg = knee to foot

    Foot

  • Femur Thigh landmarksLongest, strongest, largest bone in bodyHeadNeckGreater and lesser trochanterMedial and lateral condyleMedial and lateral epicondyleLinea aspera

  • Patella knee cap landmarksBaseApexArticular surfaces

  • Lower legtechnically the distance between the knee and ankle Bones of the leg: tibia (shin bone) and fibula (lateral leg bone) Consists of the: Tibia (shin bone)FibulaInterosseuos membrane connects tibia and fibula along their length

  • Tibia landmarksMedial and lateral condyleTibial tuberosityMedial malleolus (medial bulge of ankle)Anterior border (crest) is the shin

  • Distal End of Tibia

  • Fibula landmarksFibula is lateral bone of the legHeadLateral malleolus (lateral bulge of ankle)

  • The footIncludes the bones of the;-Tarsus-MetatarsusPhalangesFunctions-support of the body-lever for walking or running

  • Tarsal bonesTalusCalcaneous

  • Metatarsals and PhalangesAre all long bonesMetatarsals numbered 1-5Phalanges consist of proximal, middle and distal bones in all but big toeBig toe or great toe is Hallux

  • Tarsal bones (Ankle)