C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

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  • C h a p t e r8

    The Appendicular Skeleton

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • An Introduction to the Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton126 bonesAllows us to move and manipulate objectsIncludes all bones besides axial skeletonThe limbs The supportive girdles

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Pectoral GirdleAlso called the shoulder girdleConnects the arms to the body Positions the shouldersProvides a base for arm movementConsists ofTwo clavicles Two scapulaeConnects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Clavicles

    Also called collarbonesLong, S-shaped bonesOriginate at the manubrium (sternal end)Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • ScapulaArticulate with arm and collarboneStructures of the scapulaAnterior surface: the subscapular fossaBody has three sides:superior bordermedial border (vertebral border)lateral border (axillary border)Body has three corners:superior angleinferior anglelateral angle

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • ScapulaGlenoid cavity or fossa Articulates with humerus To form shoulder jointCoracoid process:anterior, smallerAcromion: posterior, larger articulates with clavicleat the acromioclavicular joint

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Scapula

    Scapular spine:ridge across posterior surface of bodySeparates two regions: supraspinous fossa infraspinous fossa

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Upper LimbsThe upper limbs consist of the arms, forearms, wrists, and handsarm (brachium)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • HumerusHead:Rounded, articulating surfaceContained within joint capsuleAnatomical neck:Margin of joint capsuleSurgical neck:The narrow metaphysis

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • HumerusThe ShaftDeltoid tuberosity:a bulge in the shaftattaches deltoid muscle Radial groove:for radial nerveposterior to deltoid tuberosity

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • HumerusThe distal epiphysisMedial and lateral epicondyles:for muscle attachment Condyle of the humerus:articulates with ulna and radiusArticular regions of the condyleTrochlea:coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa articulates with ulnaCapitulum:radial fossaarticulates with radius

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • ForearmAlso called the antebrachiumConsists of two long bonesUlna (medial)Radius (lateral)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • UlnaThe olecranonSuperior end of ulna Point of elbowSuperior lip of trochlear notchArticulates with trochlea of humerusThe coronoid processInferior lip of trochlear notch

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • UlnaArticulations with the humerusForearm extended: olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed:coronoid process enters coronoid fossaOther articulationsRadial notch:articulates with head of radiusforms proximal radio-ulnar jointUlnar head:prominent styloid processattaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • RadiusLateral bone of forearmDisk-shaped radial head above the neckRadial tuberosity below the neck, attaches bicepsArticulations of the radiusUlnar notch:distal endarticulates with wrist and radiusStyloid process:stabilizes wrist joint

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • 8 Carpal BonesScaphoidLunateTriquetrumPisiform

    TrapeziumTrapezoidCapitateHamate

    Sally loves to play the Trumpet, Tuba, Cello, and Harp

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Metacarpals & PhalangesMetacarpal BonesThe five long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medialArticulate with proximal phalangesPhalanges of the Hands (14 total finger bones)Pollex (thumb)Two phalanges (proximal, distal) FingersThree phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Upper Limbs

    Figure 86a Bones of the Wrist and Hand.

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Pelvic GirdleMade up of two hip bones (coxal bones)Strong to bear body weight, stress of movementPart of the pelvisCoxal bonesMade up of three fused bonesIlium (articulates with sacrum)IschiumPubis

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Pelvic GirdleCoxal BonesThe acetabulumAlso called the hip socketIs the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the hip bone (coxal bone)Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)Acetabular notchA gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Ilium

    Greater sciatic notchFor sciatic nerveIliac crestUpper brimIliac fossaDepression between iliac crest and arcuate line

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • IschiumIschial spineAbove lesser sciatic notchIschial tuberosityPosterior projection you sit on Ischial ramusMeets inferior ramus of pubisSuperior ramusMeets pubic tubercle

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • PubisPubic symphysisGap between pubic tuberclesPadded with fibrous cartilageObturator foramenFormed by ischial and pubic ramiAttaches hip musclesPectineal lineRidge of superior ramus of pubisContinues to iliac crest as arcuate line (both of the ilium)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Pelvic GirdleCoxal BonesArticulations of the pelvic girdleSacroiliac jointArticulation of posterior auricular surface of iliumWith the sacrumStabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosityThe PelvisConsists of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyxStabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Pelvic Girdle

    Figure 88a The Pelvis.

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Pelvic GirdleDivisions of the PelvisTrue pelvisEncloses pelvic cavityPelvic brim:upper edge of true pelvis encloses pelvic inlet Perineum region:inferior edges of true pelvisforms pelvic outletperineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavityFalse pelvis:Blades of ilium above arcuate line

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female PelvisFemale pelvisSmoother and lighterPelvis modifications for Childbearingenlarged pelvic outletbroad pubic angle (>100)less curvature of sacrum and coccyxwide, circular pelvic inletbroad, low pelvisilia project laterally, not upwards

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • The Lower LimbsBones of the Lower LimbsFemur (thigh)Patella (kneecap)Tibia and fibula (leg)Tarsals (ankle)Metatarsals (foot)Phalanges (toes)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • FemurThe proximal epiphysisFemoral head:articulates with pelvis at acetabulumattaches at fovea capitisThe neck:Narrow area between head and trochantersJoins shaft at angle

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • FemurThe proximal epiphysisTrochanters:greater trochanter and lesser trochanter:tendon attachmentsintertrochanteric line (anterior) and intertrochanteric crest (posterior):mark edge of articular capsule

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • FemurThe shaftLinea aspera:most prominent ridge of shaftattaches hip musclesjoins epicondylesThe distal epiphysisMedial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle: above the knee jointMedial condyle and lateral condyle:separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surfaceform part of knee joint

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • PatellaAlso called the kneecapA sesamoid boneFormed within tendon of quadriceps femorisBase attaches quadriceps femorisApex attaches patellar ligament

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • TibiaThe proximal epiphysisMedial and lateral tibial condyles: separated by intercondylar eminence articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femurTibial tuberosity:attaches patellar ligament

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • TibiaThe shaftAnterior margin:sharp ridge of shinboneThe distal epiphysisMedial malleolus:medial projection at the ankle

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • FibulaAttaches muscles of feet and toesSmaller than tibiaLateral to tibia

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • FibulaArticulations with tibiaFibula/tibia articulations:headinferior tibiofibular jointInterosseous membrane:binds fibula to tibia Lateral malleolus:lateral projection of ankle

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • AnkleAlso called the tarsusConsists of seven tarsal bonesBones of the ankleTalus:carries weight from tibia across trochleaCalcaneus (heel bone):transfers weight from talus to groundattaches calcaneal (Achilles) tendonCuboid:articulates with calcaneus

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • AnkleNavicular:articulates with talus and three cuneiform bonesMedial cuneiformIntermediate cuneiformLateral cuneiform

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Metatarsal Bones of the Foot

    Five long bones of foot Numbered IV, medial to lateralArticulate with toes

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Phalanges of the foot14 bones of the toesHalluxBig toe or great toe, two phalanges (distal, proximal)Other four toesThree phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

  • Arches of the FeetArches transfer weight from one part of the foot to another The longitudinal archCalcaneal portion:lateral Talar portion:medialThe transverse archFormed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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