The Skeleton. Two Divisions Axial Appendicular Axial Skeleton

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Skeleton </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Two Divisions Axial Appendicular </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Axial Skeleton </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The axis of the Body Skull Inner ear bones Hyoid Bone Rib cage Vertebral column </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Axial Skeleton Functions Framework for supporting and protecting organ systems in dorsal and ventral body cavities Surface area for muscle attachment Head, neck and trunk stability and movement Respiratory movement Stabilize/position appendicular skeleton </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Skull Protect Brain Support sense organs Vision Hearing Balance Olfaction gustation </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Skull 22 bones 8 cranial 14 facial Seven additional bones in the skull 6 auditory ossicles Hyoid bone </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Hyoid Bone Suspended below the skull by ligaments Muscle base for the larynx (voice box) Supports and positions the larynx </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Vertebral Column Spine is 26 bones 24 vertebrae Saccrum Coccyx </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Vertebral Column Vertebrae are in regions Cervical (C1 C7): C1 = atlas; C2 = axis Thoracic (T1 T12) Articulate with ribs Lumbar (L1 L5) Total length in average adult is 28 inches </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Intervertebral Disc Fibrocartilage disc that lies between two adjoining vertebrae Not found in sacrum or coccyx Shock absorbers </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Act as ligaments that hold the vertebrae of the spine together and as cartilaginous joints that allow for slight mobility in the spine. Allow for movement at the waist as they act as a pivot point and allow the lumbar spine to bend, rotate, and twist </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Vertebrae Anatomy For the three types of vertebrae there are different distinguishing features The openings of the vertebrae (foramen) form the vertebral canal which enclose the spinal cord </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Vertebrae Anatomy Vertebral foramen: opening Vertebral arch: posterior margin of foramen Transverse process: site for muscle attachment Spinous process: Bump down your back Body: weight-bearing portion Lamina: roof of vertebral arch Pedicle: walls of vertebral arch </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Cervical Vertebrae There are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck. They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the vertebral column. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy Body Lamina Transverse Process Superior articular facet Foramen Spinous Process Pedicle </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Thoracic Vertebrae The rib cage of the chest is attached to the thoracic spine at each level. Gives a great deal of stability and support to the upper body. Limits the back's movement at the chest level. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Thoracic Vertebrae Anatomy Body Lamina Transverse Process Superior articular facet Foramen Spinous Process Pedicle </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Lumber Vertebrae There are 5 lumbar vertebrae located in the lower back. Receive the most stress and are the weight- bearing portion of the back. Allow movements such as flexion and extension and some lateral flexion. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Lumbar Vertebrae Anatomy Body Lamina Transverse Process Superior articular facet Foramen Spinous Process Pedicle </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Sacrum and Coccyx Sacrum: five fused vertebrae Protects reproductive and digestive organs Attaches axial to appendicular skeleton Extensive muscle attachment Coccyx: 3-5 fused vertebrae Attachment site for muscle that closes anal opening </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Spinal Curves Curved to allow for weight distribution 2 primary curves: appear in late fetal development Thoracic Sacral 2 secondary curves: occur months after birth Cervical lumbar </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Spinal Curves Primary Curve Secondary Curve Primary Curve Secondary Curve </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Chest Bones (Thorax) Thoracic Vertebrae Ribs Sternum </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Ribs and Sternum 12 pairs of ribs 7 pairs of true ribs Reach the anterior body wall and connect to the sternum by separate cartilage (costal cartilage) 8-12 are false ribs Do not attach directly to the sternum Costal cartilage of 8-10 fuses with 7 Last Two pairs = floating ribs No sternum connection </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Sternum Manubrium: articulates with the clavicle Body Xiphoid process </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> intervertebral disc x ray http://www.chirogeek.com/000_disc_anato my.htmhttp://www.chirogeek.com/000_disc_anato my.htm http://spanky.thehawkeye.com/features/su rgery/index.htmlhttp://spanky.thehawkeye.com/features/su rgery/index.html </li> </ul>