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Koryŏ II Foreign Invasions & Shatter of Domestic Tranquility

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Kory II

Kory IIForeign Invasions & Shatter of Domestic Tranquility

10th 12th CenturyChngjong (r. 945-949)Created Kwanggun (Resplendent Army) to count the private army: consolidating royal power

Sngjong (981-997)Established National Confucian Academy, Kukchagam (982): Purpose of Educationpreparing for the civil service examinationConfucian learningmoral training

Confucianism as statecraft

Songjong tried to continue Kwangjongs reformsHe wanted to downgraded local gentry; tried to balance Kaesng capital-based aristocracy with local gentry, particularly by absorbing local gentry into former through education, promoting Conf learningEstablished National Confucian Academy, Kukchagam (982): Purpose of Educationpreparing for the civil service examinationConfucian learningmoral trainingConfucianism as statecraft: Three Chancelleries and Six Ministries

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Choe Chung (Confucius of Korea)Established the Nine Course Academy private school in 1055More private schools were established later by retired officials (12)Government established local schools called hyangyo.

Choe Chung (Confucius of Korea)Established the Nine Course Academy private school in 1055More private schools were established later by retired officials (12)Government established local schools called hyangyo.

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Youme (Y) - Kory Foreign RelationsKhitan Liao (907-1125) Jurchen Jin [Chin] dynasty (1115-1234)Chinese Song dynasty (960-1126)Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279)

Khitan Liao (907-1125) Jurchen Chin dynasty (1115-1234)Chinese Sung dynasty (960-1126)Southern Sung dynasty (1127-1279)

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LiaoKORYOSongChin

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Invasions of Kithan (Liao)

Established the state of Liao (946)Claimed to be the heirs of KoguryIn 993, demanding the return of Kogurys territory => invaded KoryGeneral S Hui convinced the Liao => Kory is descendents of KoguryIn 1010: Invaded with 400,000 troops =>failedIn 1018: Invaded with 100,000 troops => failedKory Song China (960-1279) Liao: balanced relationship

Around 946 when Kithan established the state of Liao Liao Claimed themselves as the heirs of KoguryIn 993, demanding the return of Kogurys territory => invaded KoryGeneral S Hui convinced the Liao => Kory is descendents of KoguryIn 1010: Liao invaded with 400,000 troops =>failedIn 1018: Invaded with 100,000 troops => failedKory Song China (960-1279) Liao: maintained balanced relationship

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KORYOLiaoJurchen

Later Three KingdomsLiaoJurchenKORYOLATER PAEKCHE SILLANaju

12th century9

Invasion of Jurchen (Jin)Jurchen (malgal) united tribes => the state of Jin

In 1125, Jin destroyed Liao claimed Kogurys ancestry demanding tributary relationship Kory government accepteddisconnected with Song China

Jurchen (malgal) united tribes and established the state of JinIn 1125, Jin destroyed Liao Jin claimed themselves as Kogurys ancestry demanding Koryo tributary relationship and asked to disconnect relation with Song China Kory government accepted (alliance with Yi Chagym) disconnected with Song China

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Jin (Jurchen)_KORYO

Kory Tripitaka (Presentation)

Buddhism: Textual vs. MeditationalKory Tripitaka (1087, 1251)Tripitaka Koreana,is the most complete collection of Buddhist texts, engraved on 80,000 woodblocks between 1237 and 1248.Woodblocks

The buildings of Janggyeong Panjeon, which date from the 15th century, were constructed to house the woodblocks, which are also revered as exceptional works of art. As the oldest depository of theTripitaka, they reveal an astonishing mastery of the invention and implementation of the conservation techniques used to preserve these woodblocks.12

Tripitaka Koreana (Kory Tripitaka)Buddhist scriptural canon1087: first carving in response to Khitan invasionsdestroyed in 13th C. Mongol invasions1251: new edition completedCurrently located at Haeinsa templeConsidered finest of twenty versions originating in East Asia for accuracy, beauty, and carving

Additional info @http://www.ocp.go.kr/english/treasure/dom_hae.html

Buddhist scriptural canon:Tripitaka Koreana,is the most complete collection of Buddhist texts, engraved on 80,000 woodblocks between 1237 and 1248.

1087: first carving in response to Khitan invasionsdestroyed in 13th C. Mongol invasions1251: new edition completedCurrently located at Haeinsa templeConsidered finest of twenty versions originating in East Asia for accuracy, beauty, and carvingKON, 80

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Kory Tripitaka

Yi ChagymGrandfather of the King Injong (r. 1123-1146)Power of in-law-families: hereditary aristocrats (economic and political power)Yi Chagym planned to place himself on the throneDefeated by his rivals (monk Myochng and Kim Pusik): fell from the power

Yi Chagym: shows weakened royal authority & potential aristocratic powerGrandfather of the King Injong (r. 1123-1146)Power of in-law-families: hereditary aristocrats (economic and political power)Ten queens in his family gave 2 other daughters in marriage to Injong , .Yi Chagym planned to place himself on the throneHe took Injong captive and burned palaceHowever, he was defeated by his rivals (monk Myochng and Kim Pusik): fell from the powershows weakened royal authority & potential aristocratic power vs 15

MyochngHis suggestions to the InjongSuggested to move the capital to Pyngyang (geomancy) => getting away from the powerful clans in the capitalTo attack the state of JinInjong to declare himself emperor

The powerful aristocrats dominated the government.King had little powerMyochong suggested to Injong to move the capital to Pyngyang (geomancy)Myochng urged Injong to move capital from Kaesng to Pyngyang, getting away from the powerful clans in the capitalGeomancy means of finding good sites for graves, towns, capitalsking built palace in Pyngyang in 1129; To attack the state of Jin Injong to declare himself emperorto show Kory equal with Sung and ChinKim Pusik and Kaegyngs hereditary aristocrats disapprovalMyoch ng revolts in 1135Established the state of Taewi in PyongyangDefeated by Kim Pusik in 1136invigorate Kory, get court away from aristocratsurged king to declare himself emperor to show Kory equal with Sung and Chin

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Ten Injunctions1) Ensure favor and protection of Buddha; caution that temples do not fight amongst themselves2) Be discriminating about where temples are built and stick to sites chosen by Tosn3) Eldest legitimate royal issue to succeed to throne4) Do not copy China unreasonably (especially Khitan Liao)5) Make royal visits to Western Capital of Pyngyang6) Observe Yndng and Palgwan festivals (Buddhism festivals)7) Heed sincere criticism and banish those with slanderous tongue8) Beware of territory south of Kongju 9) Do not change set salaries and allowances 10) Learn from the classics and history; guard against mistakes whether preserving a household or the state

geomancy had been critical to founding of Kory; Tosn (827-898) was trusted advisor to Wang Kn; 4 capitals at Pyngyang (west), Kaesng (center aka Songak), Seoul (south, aka Mongmyngyang), and Kyngju (east);

Philosophy of government(1) (6) shows that the king Promote Buddhism as a protective cult(9) King Warn against appointment of people from Paekche(4) Koruo has its valuable cultureChina can be a model to be looked, but should not imitate the Chinese customs

. . , , . .( .) , 1 100 .() () . . () . , . .

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Jin

KoryoPyngyangKaesong

Kim Pusik and Kaegyngs hereditary aristocrats disapprovalMyoch ng revolts in 1135Established the state of Taewi in PyongyangDefeated by government forces in 1136

Kim Pusik and Kaegyngs hereditary aristocrats disapprovalMyochong lost kings support =>raised army & declared his own kingdom in 1135, the state of Taewi in PyongyangMyochong fell to government forces

Myoch ng revolts in 1135Established the state of Taewi in PyongyangDefeated by Kim Pusik in 1136

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King Kongmin (Presentation)

Military Rule

Kory was a society dominated by a civil aristocracyA son of a powerful civil official burnt Chng Chungbus long beard 1170 military coup led by Chng ChungbuExtensive purge of civil officialsSupport from retainers and house slaves1170-1196:instability => center: generals plotted against each otherLocal: peasants and slaves revolt

Kory was a society dominated by a civil aristocracyMilitary officials are discriminated. The son of Kim Pusik burnt s beard with a candle almost his grand-father age.

1170 military coup led by Chng ChungbuSubak, is a kind of Korean boxing, to promote military skills.A senior general played the boxing with a junior military officialWhen the general was on the corner, and tried to going out the boxing ring,The space that boxing matches occcurs,The young civil official grabbed him and slapped his cheek

Extensive purge of civil officialsSupport from retainers and house slaves1170-1196:instability => center: generals plotted against each otherLocal: peasants and slaves revoltManjk: slave revolt => failed (1198)

Support from mungaek (retainers) and kadong (house slaves)

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Choe Chunghn (Presentation)

Choe Chunghn

Seized power in 1196 => stabilityDissatisfaction with King Myngjong (1170-1197)Corruption => direct control over local institutionsInferior officials => selected civil officials by the civil exam, attracted intellectualsInterference of Buddhism in politics => broke the power

Seized power in 1196 => stabilityDissatisfaction with King Myngjong (1170-1197)Corruption => direct control over local institutionsInferior officials => selected civil officials by the civil exam, attracted intellectualsInterference of Buddhism in politics => broke the power

Office of Decree Enactment (Kyojng togam): real locus of power, highest administrative organPower to collect taxesInvestigate wrongdoings by officials

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Rule by Choe familiy (1196-1258)

Stabilized governmentSet the effective institutions that secured their powerOffice of Decree Enactment (Kyojng togam): real locus of power, highest administrative organPower to collect taxesInvestigate wrongdoings by officials

Office of Decree Enactment (Kyojng togam): real locus of power, highest administrative organ

Power to collect taxesInvestigate wrongdoings by officials

Rule by Choe familiy (1196-1258)Stabilized governmentSet the effective institutions that secured their power

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Peasant Rebellions8 peasant rebellions: 1199, 1200, 1202 1202-1204, 1203, 1208, 1217, 1217Economic causesRise of some commoners and slavesPolitical discontentBreakdown in local governmentManjk: slave revolt => failed (1198)

8 peasant rebellions: 1199, 1200, 1202 1202-1204, 1203, 1208, 1217, 1217Economic causesRise of some commoners and slavesPolitical discontentBreakdown in local governmentManjk: slave revolt => failed (1198)

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ManjkSince the 1170 coup and the 1173 countercoup, the nation has witnessed many high officials rising from humble status, How could these generals and ministers be different from us in origin? If one has the opportunity, anyone can make it. Why should we suffer and toil under the whip? (Manjk, 1198)

Since the 1170 coup and the 1173 countercoup, the nation has witnessed many high officials rising from humble (chn) status, How could these generals and ministers be different from us in origin? If one has the opportunity, anyone can make it. Why should we suffer and toil under the whip? (Manjk, 1198)failed (1198)27

Geomancy 3:00http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bliYceHYQc4

Life of WomenInherit property => considerable independenceDivorce was possibleRemarriage of widows was possibleNot strictly patrilineal =>matrilineal importantUxorilocal: the bridegroom moved into brides house, and their children and often even their grand-children were born and raised in the mothers houseMonogamyPak Yus memorial to the King Chungnyl (r. 1274-1308) suggests marrying commoner women as concubines => did not workHorse riding

Inherit property => considerable independenceDivorce was possibleRemarriage of widows was possibleNot strictly patrilineal =>matrilineal importantUxorilocal: the bridegroom moved into brides house, and their children and often even their grand-children were born and raised in the mothers housePlural marriage possible?Xu Jing (Chinese traveler, 1123)MonogamyPak Yus memorial to the King Chungnyl (r. 1274-1308) suggests marrying commoner women as concubines => did not workHorse riding

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Kory IIIKory under Mongol Domination

Kory Foreign RelationsKhitan Liao (907-1125) Jurchen Jin [Chin] dynasty (1115-1234)Chinese Song dynasty (960-1126)Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279)

Mongol Yuan (1206-1368)

Khitan Liao (907-1125) Jurchen Chin dynasty (1115-1234): 120 years Chinese Sung dynasty (960-1126)Southern Sung dynasty (1127-1279)

Nomadic tribes in MongolPowerful leader in Mongol: 31

Jin (Jurchen)_KORYO

Mongol Warriors

Mongol (Yuan) (1206-1368) Genghis Khan (ca. 1162-1227): grandson Khubilai Khan (1215-1294)

Genghis Khan (ca. 1162-1227): King of the UniverseMongol destroyed Jin in 1234.He turned his eyes towards West And attakced Europe

3/ 9:-10 grandson Khubilai Khan (1215-1294)

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The Mongol Empires c. 1280

The Mongol Empires 1287

Twice of Roman empireFour times size of the Alexander The Grate

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Khublai Khan

Mongol clothing

Mongol Invasions1231-12707 times from 1231 to 1270Subjugate Khitans and demanded tribute from Kory => Kory refused and killed the mongol envoys => invaded in 1231In 1232, the military government declared all out resistance => moved to Kanghwa Island

7 times from 1231 to 1270Subjugate Khitans and demanded tribute from Kory => Kory refused and killed the mongol envoys => invaded in 1231In 1232, the military government declared all out resistance Moved Capital moved to Kanghwa Island 1232

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Two capitals, Kaesng, Pyngyang

Kwanghwa: Mongol army have no experience in sea battle and afraid of sea.Mogols could only glare across the narrow strip of sea separating Kanghwa from the mainland. Ruling class would be able to sustain their extravagant lives of luxuries. The resistance first gained support of peasants and lowborn class. However,

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Kanghwa Palace Remains(escape by royal family and Choe family)

Ship found near Sinan: Remains and Reconstruction

Remains of Kory ships found in Shandong14th century

14th century hand cannon

Restoration of Cannon Works

Land destruction was devastatingKim Chun overthrew Choe government seeking the peace with Mongol in 1258In 1270, moved back to Kaegyng and surrenderedSambylcho (Three Elite Patrols: Choe clan controlled military forces) resisted until 1273

Mongol Invasions1231-1270

Land destruction was devastatingKim Chun overthrew Choe government seeking the peace with Mongol in 1258In 1270, moved back to Kaegyng and surrenderedSamblcho (Three Elite Patrols: Choe clan controlled military forces) resisted until 1273

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Mongol Invasions1270-1356son-in-law nationKory monarchy (chung/loyalty in reign title)visits to Mongol courtjurisdiction over Koreans in Manchuria1274 and 1281 expeditions against Japantribute payments (including gold, grains, 12-15 years of girls, and hunting hawks)

Kory became the Soninlaw state of MongolMongol intervenes domestic affairs of Koryo deepy.Korean kings had title after their death.Before the Mongol ake the suffixes cho (progenitor) and chong (ancestor) as part of their posthumous title => However, after Koryo surrendered,Kory kings took chung (loyal) as the first character of their titleKoryo kings had to visits to Mongol courtjurisdiction over Koreans was in Manchuria1274 and 1281 expeditions against Japantribute payments (including gold, grains, 12-15 years of girls, and hunting hawks)Crown princes resided in Beijing as hostages until they ascending to the throne=> loyalty to the Yuan => indicative of subordinate status53

Peace under MongolsKing Wnjong (r. 1259-74)Chungnyl (r. 1274-1308)Chungsn (r. 1308-13)Chungsuk (r. 1313-30, 1332-39)Chunghye (r. 1330-32, 1339-44)Chungmok (r. 1344-48)Chungjng (r. 1348-51)

s Loyalty to Yuan 54

King Chungnyl (r. 1274-1308) married a daughter of the Yuan EmperorKory kings had princesses of the Yuan imperial house as their primary consorts => sons of these queens usually succeeded to the throneCrown princes resided in Beijing as hostages until they ascending to the throneThe organs of government were renamed => less prestige

Mongol Invasions1270-1356

King Chungnyl (r. 1274-1308) married a daughter of the Yuan EmperorKory kings had princesses of the Yuan imperial house as their primary consorts => sons of these queens usually succeeded to the throneCrown princes lived in Beijing as hostages until they ascending to the throne moved to BeijingThe organs of government were renamed => less prestige

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Kory became a member of one of the worlds most cosmopolitan societiesOpportunities of travellingOpportunity for social advancement => marriage alliance with MongolsMany Korean adopted Mongol clothing and hairstylesNumber of foreigners to Kory => government officials, merchants

Kory became a member of one of the worlds most cosmopolitan societiesOpportunities of travellingOpportunity for social advancement => marriage alliance with MongolsMany Korean adopted Mongol clothing and hairstylesNumber of foreigners to Kory => government officials, merchantsPersian and arabic merchants visited Korea and some lived in for several years

Korea was widely known to the West56

Mongol Origins of Bridal Headdress

Decline of YuanBase of two efforts to conquer JapanKory shipbuilders, sailors, soldiers, fleets wee used to invade Japan in 1274 => typhoon season => failed => kamikaze (divine wind)Second invasion in 1281 => failed again (typhoon)

Mongol was indirect => the court and bureaucracy in Kaegyng continued to function

Mongol declined fast in late 13th century Yuan with the tributes from all around became rich First reason is failures in two efforts to conquer JapanKory shipbuilders, sailors, soldiers, fleets wee used to invade Japan in 1274 => typhoon season => failed => kamikaze (divine wind)Second invasion in 1281 => failed again (typhoon)

Mongol was indirect => the court and bureaucracy in Kaegyng continued to function 58

King Kongmins (r. 1351-1374) Reform

In 1368, the Ming China established => drove out Yuan from BeijingTaking advantage of Yuan weakness and destroyed pro-Mongol faction from the government. - allied with Ming China (f. 1368)- advised by monk Shin Ton (National Preceptor) who tried to curb powerful families

In 1368, the Ming China established => drove out Yuan from Beijing

King Kongmin Taking advantage of Yuan weakness and destroyed pro-Mongol faction from the government.

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Kongmin and Noguk (?)Painting from Kongmins Spirit Shrine

King Kongmin (r. 1351-1374)Pursued an anti-Mongol and Pro-Ming policyAbolished the Eastern Expedition Headquarters (Mongol kept eye on Kory)Abolished Yuan commanderyThe Ming recognized Kongmin as king => adopted the Ming calendar, re-establish tributary relationship

King Kongmin was recorded as a tyrant in the history.Still he was revolutionary and competent rulerChung character first disappeared in kings titles.Pursued an anti-Mongol and Pro-Ming policyAbolished the Eastern Expedition Headquarters (Mongol kept eye on Kory)Abolished Yuan commanderyAbolished Chngbang (Personnel Authority): military ruleThe Ming recognized Kongmin as king => adopted the Ming calendar, re-establish tributary relationship

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A slave monk, Sin(Shin) TonBirth name: Pyonjo. His mother was a slaveKing Kongmin selected a slave monk, Sin Ton, as his chief officer => redistribution of lands and slavesSin Ton was exiled and killed

: Illuminate the worldFollowing mothers lineage: Sintons mom was slave King Kongmin chose such a low person as his chief officer.Sin Ton was popular among lower class and women.At that time, the national religion was BuddhismWhen they prayed, women are not allowed to enter into the hall.They have to pray outside even its rainy or snowy.One day when Sin Ton preached in a rainy day, he saw womenPraying outside in a heavy rain day.Sin Ton let the women come into the hallNot getting wet. When sin Ton got great popularity, many aristocrats spoke ill of himSaying that he has secret affairs with women, attempted to be a kingBecoming a wise ruler is difficult.King Kongmin sent him exiled and executed him. Sin Ton has a son () His name is Monino who later became King U.62

Kongmin was assassinated

Pro-Yuan vs. Pro-MingThe Ming were suspicious of the new administration

Princess Noguk (wife of Kongmin)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W--jCGOY7cc6:13

After the death of Noguk Princess from Yuan, he could not control himself well.He spent national property to make her funeral great. After then, he gathered young boys and enjoyed parties.Jealousy and envy arouse from the boys and one boy servant killed Kongmin.

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Mongol Origins of Bridal Headdress

Policy of AccommodationTamna Commandery (Cheju-do Island): supply post for horses in preparation for attack on Japan

Tamna Commandery (Cheju-do Island): supply post for horses in preparation for attack on Japan66

Koryo under Mongolhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W--jCGOY7cc6:13 Noguk princess and King Kongmin

14:20 5th year of King Kongminhttp://www.dramafever.com/drama/131/1/Shin_Don/?ap=1

The legacy of the Mongol PeriodFew literary and artistic works have survivedGrowing consciousness of Korean cultural identitySamguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms): Buddhist tales and legendsChewang ungi (Songs of Emperors and Kings) Yi Snghyu => rulers of Korea from TangunTongmyngwand pyn (The Saga of King Tongmyng) by Yi Kyubo => let the world that our country always has been a land of hero-sages (folk tradition)Compiled Tripitaka Koreana (Buddhist Canon)Number of other works on Korean history => Korea is a society with its own traditions and history distinct from that of its neighborsKoreans more cautious of outsiders => policy of limiting foreign contact => the hermit Kingdom

Few literary and artistic works have survivedGrowing consciousness of Korean cultural identitySamguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms): Buddhist tales and legendsChewang ungi (Songs of Emperors and Kings) Yi Snghyu => rulers of Korea from TangunTongmyngwand pyn (The Saga of King Tongmyng) by Yi Kyubo => let the world that our country always has been a land of hero-sages (folk tradition)Compiled Tripitaka Koreana (Buddhist Canon)Number of other works on Korean history => Korea is a society with its own traditions and history distinct from that of its neighborsKoreans more cautious of outsiders => policy of limiting foreign contact => the hermit Kingdom

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Foreign Merchants to KoryoSilk Road: Arabic and Persian merchants came.Name Koryo was known to Western by foreign merchants visiting Korea during Koryo period.Song of Chyong Arabic merchant had had a love affair with Koryo woman

Wang Kon established KoryoArabic and Persian merchants came.Name Koryo was known to Western by foreign merchants visiting Korea during Koryo period.Song of Chyong Arabic merchant had had a love affair with Koryo woman Arabic merchanthad had a love affair with a beautifulKoryocourtesan

Korea (?) vs Corea (?)

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Empress Ki, Chinese portrait

woman, sent to Mongol as a tribute payment wbecame Secondary Empress to Toghun Temr Khan son Ayurshiridar became Crown Prince and later emperor of a much diminished empire

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Empress Ki, per Ki family

Culture of KoryoCotton and cotton clothing makingCotton seeds: Mun Ikchm in 1363Gunpowder and cannons: Choe Musn learned the formula from ChinesePapermaking and printing: the worlds first moveable metal typeMedicine texts

Cotton and cotton clothing spread to KoryoCotton seeds: Mun Ikchm in 1363 from Ming Gunpowder and cannons: Choe Musn learned the formula from ChinesePapermaking and printing: the worlds first moveable metal typeMedicine texts

Emergence of new families => few ones appeared, the old aristocracy largely survivedGradual penetration of the central government into the countryside

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General Choe Yng became a military commander => mobilize the country for an attack on the Ming => sent Yi Snggye

Yi Snggye opposed => turned back his army at Wihwa island => took powerEnd of Kory => Yi Snggye: founder of Chosn in 1392

The U-turn that Founded a DynastyYi stops at Wihwa Island Submits 4-point memorial against the campaign Memorial ignoredYi turns back and strikes KaesngYi declares the new dynasty of Chosn in 1392

KaesngWihwa-do