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Koryŏ III Koryŏ under Mongol Domination

Author: csolitude

Post on 12-Apr-2017



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  • Kory IIIKory under Mongol Domination

  • Mongol Invasions7 times from 1231 to 1270Subjugate Khitans and demanded tribute from Kory => Kory refused and killed the mongol envoys => invaded in 1231In 1232, the military government declared all out resistance => moved to Kanghwa IslandLand destruction was devastatingKim Chun overthrew Choe government seeking the peace with Mongol in 1258In 1270, moved back to Kaegyng and surrenderedSamblcho (Three Elite Patrols: Choe clan controlled military forces) resisted until 1273

  • From 1270 to 1356Kory became the Sonin law state of MongolKing Chungnyl (r. 1274-1308) married a daughter of the Yuan EmperorKory kings had princesses of the Yuan imperial house as their primary consorts => sons of these queens usually succeeded to the throneCrown princes resided in Beijing as hostages until they ascending to the throneKory kings did not take the exalted suffixes cho (progenitor) and chong (ancestor) as part of their posthumous title => took chung (loyal) as the first character of their title => loyalty to the Yuan => indicative of subordinate statusThe organs of government were renamed => less prestige

  • Kory became a member of one of the worlds most cosmopolitan societiesOpportunities of travellingOpportunity for social advancement => marriage alliance with MongolsMany Korean adopted Mongol clothing and hairstylesNumber of foreigners to Kory => government officials, merchants

    Base of two efforts to conquer JapanKory shipbuilders, sailors, soldiers, fleets wee used to invade Japan in 1274 => typhoon season => failed => kamikaze (divine wind)Second invasion in 1281 => failed again (typhoon)

    Mongol was indirect => the court and bureaucracy in Kaegyng continued to function

  • Policy of AccommodationTamna Commandery (Cheju-do Island):

    supply post for horses in preparation for attack on Japan

  • The legacy of the Mongol PeriodFew literary and artistic works have survivedGrowing consciousness of Korean cultural identitySamguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms): Buddhist tales and legendsChewang ungi (Songs of Emperors and Kings) Yi Snghyu => rulers of Korea from TangunTongmyngwand pyn (The Saga of King Tongmyng) by Yi Kyubo => let the world that our country always has been a land of hero-sages (folk tradition)Compiled Tripitaka Koreana (Buddhist Canon)Number of other works on Korean history => Korea is a society with its own traditions and history distinct from that of its neighborsKoreans more cautious of outsiders => policy of limiting foreign contact => the hermit Kingdom

  • Tripitaka Koreana (Kory Tripitaka)Buddhist scriptural canon1087: first carving in response to Khitan invasionsdestroyed in 13th C. Mongol invasions1251: new edition completedCurrently located at Haeinsa templeConsidered finest of twenty versions originating in East Asia for accuracy, beauty, and carvingKON, 80

    Additional info @http://www.ocp.go.kr/english/treasure/dom_hae.html

  • Kory CeladonCeladonDelicate jade-green colorMade in various shapesVaried decorations of clouds, cranes, willows, grapes, chrysanthemumsSlip-inlay techniqueConsidered by some as worlds finest ceramic art

    Thousand Crane VaseMaebyng [baluster] shapeKory, 12th century

  • The Tripitaka in storage

  • Cotton and cotton clothing makingCotton seeds: Mun Ikchm in 1363Gunpowder and cannons: Choe Musn learned the formula from ChinesePapermaking and printing: the worlds first moveable metal typeMedicine texts

    Emergence of new families => few ones appeared, the old aristocracy largely survivedGradual penetration of the central government into the countryside

    King Kongmins (r. 1351-1374) ReformIn 1368, the Ming China established => drove out Yuan from BeijingTaking advantage of Yuan weaknessDestroyed pro-Mongol faction

  • Yi Munsuns Works 1241 CEmetal moveable type

  • Pursued an anti-Mongol and Pro-Ming policyAbolished the Eastern Expedition Headquarters (Mongol kept eye on Kory)Abolished Yuan commanderyAbolished Chngbang (Personnel Authority): military ruleThe Ming recognized Kongmin as king => adopted the Ming calendar, re-establish tributary relationshipSelect a slave monk, Sin Ton, as his chief officer => redistribution of lands and slavesSin Ton was exiled and killedKongmin was assassinated

  • Pro-Yuan vs. Pro-MingThe Ming were suspicious of the new administrationGeneral Choe Yng became a military commander => mobilize the country for an attack on the Ming => Sent Yi Snggye Yi Snggye opposed => turned back his army at Wihwa island => took powerEnd of Kory => Yi Snggye: founder of Chosn in 1392

  • The U-turn that Founded a DynastyYi stops at Wihwa Island Submits 4-point memorial

    against the campaign Memorial ignoredYi turns back and strikes KaesngYi declares the new dynasty of Chosn in 1392


  • Mongol Origins of Bridal Headdress