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مجله تخصصي انجمن علمي كامپيوتر دانشكده شهيد شمسي پور تهران

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...................................................................................................... 2 UEFI 3 .................................................................. BIOS

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( AVR 3) ................................................... 71 GSM GPRS

25 ..................................................................... 4G , 3G, 2.75G ......................................................... 33

( )

............................................................................................... 44

........................................................................................................................ 83

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GeekMagazine.sh@gmail.com

:

General Electrical Engineering Knowledge

. : 01 !

. . . . . GeekMagazine.sh@gmail.com. . -

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2

)BIOS (Basic Input/Output System

UEFI BIOS

7891 IBM

:

:

. BIOS CP/M Gray Kildall . Kildall Dorothy McEwen Intergalactic Digital Research .Digital Research Inc 0808 IMSAI 0088 Altair . Kildall .

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0088 IMSAI 8080 a popular clone of the Altair

Altair 8800 Computer with 8 inch floppy disk system Kildall ROM CP/M. : : . : :

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. RAM . : (Power-On Self-Test) POST POST : 1. . 2. ( SCSI .) 3. . ) (INT 16h . INT 19h POST . POST ( )Reboot ).(Cold Boot 2740:0000 . 1234h ( )Reboot POST ) (Cold Boot POST . ()INT 11h . . . . . . . ROM . . . CMOS .

: CMOS

46 CMOS . : . CPU . CD Floppy

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. )(INT 12h CD/DVD . ...

UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware )Interface 32 . 61 1 CPU 23 46 . Intel CPU 46 Itanium )46 (IA. 68 X . . EFI 09 . Intel EFI ( 4002) Unified EFI 11 :

. ()Bootable )(Bootstrap Sequence

. First Boot Device, Second Boot Device ... . . . INT 18h ( ):Boot Failure .

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AMD . American Megatrends Inc . Apple Computer, Inc Dell Hewlett Packard IBM Insyde Intel Lenovo Microsoft Phoenix Technologies

. UEFI . Insyde Software UEFI UEFI 02 InsydeH ) (Pre-Boot Applications .

UEFI . . -(Pre ) Boot Applications . UEFI ) (Machine Independence . UEFI ) (Diagnostics . Intel Platform Innovation Framework .

UEFI

:UEFI

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Boot Manager EFI Boot Manager . . Boot Camp Apple Mac . EFI . ) PI (Platform Initialization CSM (Compatibility ) Support Mode UEFI POST ACPI . . ) NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM. . EFI ) EBC(EFI Byte-Code ) )Processor Independence . UEFI . : 1. ()Initialization 2. )(File Services 3. ()Texture 4. ()Graphical User Console

:UEFI

:

. ( ()Modularity /(Platform UEFI C ()Portable EFI CPU . )(Pre-Boot Application )Machine Independency . ...)

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ROM . (Less )Tweakability ) (Unix-Based . (Digital Rights DRM ) Management :UEFI . ()Reliability

:UEFI

()Upgradable

UEFI . EFI EFI Intel Microsoft . .

1 46 8002 68 X 46X 23-68X Grub UEFI Elilo 46-68X86-32 X CPU Itanium . BSD 68 X .

. ( EFI ) CPU ( ). PnP . Microsoft EFI . UEFI C C : . .

UEFI 32 . EFI . .

:

:www.uefi.org/specs www.x86asm.net/articles/introduction-to-uefi www.tomshardware.com/reviews/intel-uefifirmware,2486-2.html www.intel.com/technology/efi/main_specification.htm www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bios.htm www.kb.iu.edu/data/ahtz.html

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1. 2.

:

. . . ). .

:1. 2.

. (

( )MCH .( AMD .) 1 . Cpu AMD .

: Cpu .

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01

. 6 . Cpu . Cpu ( Refresh ) . . . . Cpu Cpu

Cpu ( ) . 003 Sata 300 MB/s Cpu 2 GHz 64 Bit 61 Gb/s 05 . . ) (Locality Of Reference . 2 : 1. ( : )Temporal . 2. ( : )Spatial .

DataPath Cpu . AMD 652 . . 2 L 1 L 821

. Cpu Cpu . Cpu . Cpu . Cpu Cpu . Cpu RAM

RAM : RAM

RAM. RAM RAM . . . . RAM Refresh - ( 052 005 ) . Refresh . RAM

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. 2 MB 6 MB 2 (2 )L . 2 L . 256 KB 512 KB. AMD 5K 2-6K6 K K6-III 3 L . 2 L . 486DX Cpu . 002- Pentium 200 MHz 66MHz . 6 P Cpu . Pentium II Cpu ( ) (2/1 ) . 662 Celeron 003 Celeron . 1L 2 L ( Cpu ) Cpu . Cpu Cpu . (3 )L . 4 ()8 Threads 7 Core i : 23 23 1 L . 652 2( L ) . 8 3( L ) . . 2 3 Server ( ) . (3 )L RAM . Cpu RAM . . RAM RAM .

.

. 386DX . Cpu Cpu . 46 821 . " " . . 486DX 8 . 1 L ( ) 2 L . 684 Write-Back . RAM RAM RAM . ( 8 ) . 2 46 2*) (32 KB + 32 KB . 32 KB 1 L 23 KB 1 L .

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. . . ( ) . 2 ( )Intel , AMD . ( )RAM . FSB )Front Side ( Bus CPU ( )MCH QPI (Quick Path ) Interconnection . QPI 2 CPU . 2

Cpu . Cpu . Cpu . 2 L 1 L Cpu 652 . 1 L Cpu . 821 . . 2 L Ram 1 L Cpu 1 L Ram . 1 L2 L 1 2 Cpu . . 1 L 2 L 1 L . 1 L . 2 1 L . 1L . 1 L 2 L . Fetch . 1 L . Cpu