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Internal

WCDMA Principle

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Objectives Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

> Describe the development of 3G > Outline the advantage of CDMA principle > Characterize code sequence > Outline the fundamentals of RAN > Describe feature of wireless propagation

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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Different Service, Different Technology1G 1980s AnalogAMPS

2G 1990s DigitalGSM CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

3G IMT-2000

UMTS WCDMADemands drive

TACS NMT Others

Technologies drive

cdma 2000 TDSCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribersHUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

Different Service, Different Technology1G 1980s AnalogAMPS

2G 1990s DigitalGSM CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

3G IMT-2000

UMTS WCDMADemands drive

TACS NMT Others

Technologies drive

cdma 2000 TDSCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribersHUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

3G Evolution Proposal of 3G

> IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile communication system > The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in 1985 and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996 Commercialization: around the year of 2000 Work band : around 2000MHz The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps

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3G Spectrum Allocation

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Bands WCDMA Used Main bands

> 1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz Supplementary bands: different country maybe different

> 1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) > 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) > 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) >. . . Frequency channel number

central frequency5, for main band: 9612 9888 10838

> UL frequency channel number

> DL frequency channel number : 10562

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3G Application ServiceError Ratioconversational

streaming

interactive

background

Time Delay

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The Core technology of 3G: CDMAWCDMACN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA

cdma2000CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000

TD-SCDMA

CDMA

CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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Multiple Access and Duplex Technology Multiple Access Technology

> Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) > Time division multiple access (TDMA) > Code division multiple access (CDMA)

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Multiple Access TechnologyFDMA TDMA

Power Power

CDMA

Power

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Multiple Access and Duplex Technology Duplex Technology

> Frequency division duplex (FDD) > Time division duplex (TDD)

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Duplex Technology

Power

Time

USER 2

FDDUL

USER 1

DLFrequency

Power

Time

DL UL DL DL UL

USER 2 USER 1

TDD

Frequency

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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WCDMA Network ArchitectureCNCS Iu-CS RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B Iub Node B PS Iu-PS Core Network CS Iu-CS RNS PS Iu-PS

UTRANIub Node B

UEHUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Uu

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WCDMA Network Version Evolution

GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT

CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT

IMS HSDPA

MBMS HSUPA

3GPP Rel6

3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel99

3GPP Rel4

2000

2001

2002

2005

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WCDMA Network Version Evolution

Features of R6> MBMS is introduced > HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5.76Mbps

Features of R7> HSPA+ is introduced, which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO > Max DL rate: 28Mbps, Max UL rate:11Mbps

Features of R8> WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced > OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA > Max DL rate: 50Mbps, Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth)

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Uu Interface protocol structureGC Nt DC

Duplication avoidanceGC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information control UuS boundary

control

control

RRCcontrol control

L3

PDCP PDCP BMC RLC

L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC RLC RLC

RLC

MAC PHYHUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

L2/MAC L1

General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are

logically independent of each other.

Radio Network Layer

Control Plane Application ProtocolTransport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s)Physical Layer

Data Bearer(s)

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General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are

logically independent of each other.

Radio Network Layer

Control Plane Application ProtocolTransport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s)Physical Layer

Data Bearer(s)

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Iu-CS InterfaceRadio Network LayerControl Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Layer

ALCAPSCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

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Iu-PS InterfaceRadio Network LayerControl Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane SCCP

Transport Network User Plane GTP-U

MTP3-B C SAAL NNI UDP IP AAL Type 5

ATM Physical Layer

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Iub InterfaceRadio Network Layer Control Plane NBAP NCP CCP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network User Plane User plane Iub FP

ALCAP

SAAL UNI

SAAL UNI

AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

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Iur InterfaceRadio Network LayerControl Plane RANAP User plane Iur Data Stream

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Layer

ALCAPSCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH

ATM Physical Layer

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Service Signal

Source Coding

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

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WCDMA Source Coding AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) SpeechCODEC Bit Rate (kbps) 12.2 (GSM EFR) 10.2 7.95 7.4 (TDMA EFR) 6.7 (PDC EFR) 5.9 5.15 4.75

> A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates > The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections Video Phone Service

AMR_12.20

AMR_10.20 AMR_7.95 AMR_7.40 AMR_6.70 AMR_5.90 AMR_5.15 AMR_4.75

> H.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain > Includes: video codec, speech codec, data protocols, multiplexing and etc.

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA SystemTransmitterService Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

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WCDMA Block Coding - CRC Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected

errors left after error correction. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of

block coding. Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and

they are checked after the channel decoding.

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WCDMA Channel Coding Effect

> Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs > Provides better error correction at receiver, but brings increment of the delay Types

> No Coding > Convolutional Coding (1/2, 1/3) > Turbo Coding (1/3)No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding Code Block of N Bits 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits

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WCDMA Interleaving Effect

> Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error > Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delayInput bits 0010000 ... 10111

0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 ... ... 0

0 0 ... ... 1 1 0 ... ... 1

1 0 ... ... 1 0 0 ... ... 1

0 ... ... 1 1 0 ... ... 1 1

Interleaving periods: 20, 40, or 80 ms

000101001011

Output bits

Inter-column permutation

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Service Signal

Source Coding

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

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Correlation Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. Identical and Orthogonal signals:

+1

C1-1 +1

C2-1 +1

-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1

Correlation = 1 Identical signals

C1 C2

+1 -1 +1 +1 -1

-1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1

Correlation = 0 Orthogonal signals

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Orthogonal Code Usage - CodingUE1: UE2: 1 1 1 1

C1 : C2 : UE1c1 UE2c2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

UE1c1

UE2c2

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

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Orthogonal Code Usage - DecodingUE1C1 UE2C2: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0

UE1 Dispreading by c1: Dispreading result: Integral judgment:

1

1

1 2

1 0 1)

1 2

1 0

1 2

1 0 1) 2 0

4 (means

4 (means

UE2 Dispreading by c2: Dispreading result: Integral judgment:

1

1

1 2

1 0

1 2

1 0 1)

1 2

1 0 2 0 1)

4 (means

4 (means

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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & DispreadingP(f) Spreading code P(f)

f Narrowband signal

f Broadband signal P(f)

f Noise & Other Signal

Recovered signal P(f)

Signal Combination

Noise+Broadband signal P(f)

f

Spreading code

f

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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading

Eb / No = Ec / No PGPower

EbitEb/No Requiremen t

Max allowed interference

Processing Gain

Max interference caused by UE and others

Interference from other UE

Echip

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Process Gain Process Gain

chip rate Pr ocess Gain ! 10 log( ) bit rate> Process gain differs for each service. > If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is smaller, UE needs more power for this service, then the coverage of this service will be smaller, vice versa.

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Spreading Technology Spreading consists of 2 steps:

> Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into chips > Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal

Data symbol

Chips after spreading

channelization

scrambling

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WCDMA Channelization Code OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as

channelization code

Cch,4,0 = (1,1,1,1) C ch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) C ch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1, -1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)

Cch,8,0 = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1) Cch,8,1 = (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1) Cch,8,2 = (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1) Cch,8,3 = (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1) Cch,8,4 = (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1) Cch,8,5 = (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1) Cch,8,6 = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1) Cch,8,7 = (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4All rights reserved

SF = 8

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WCDMA Channelization Code SF = chip rate / symbol rate

> High data rates > Low data ratesRadio bearer Speech 12.2 UL Data 64 kbps UL Data 128 kbps UL Data 144 kbps UL Data 384 kbps UL

low SF code high SF code

SF 64 16 8 8 4

Radio bearer Speech 12.2 DL Data 64 kbps DL Data 128 kbps DL Data 144 kbps DL Data 384 kbps DL

SF 128 32 16 16 8

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Purpose of Channelization Code Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical

channels of one transmitter > For downlink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell > For uplink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE

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Purpose of Scrambling Code Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters

> For downlink, scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier > For uplink, scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier

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Scrambling Code Scrambling code: GOLD sequence. There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for

scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC. For downlink, 512 primary scrambling codes are used.

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Primary Scrambling Code GroupPrimary scrambling code 0 Group 0 Primary scrambling code 1 Primary scrambling code 8 Primary scrambling code 8*63

Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels

Group 1

Group 63

Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7

512 primary scrambling codes

64 primary scrambling code groupsAll rights reserved

Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes

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Code Multiplexing Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level

Scrambling code Channelization code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code 3 User 3 signalNodeB

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Code Multiplexing Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level

Scrambling code 1 Channelization code User 1 signal Scrambling code 2 Channelization code User 2 signalNodeB

Scrambling code 3 Channelization code User 3 signal

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA System

Service Signal

Source Coding

Channel Coding & Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

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Modulation OverviewData to be transmitted: Digital Input

1

0

1

0time

Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A.cos(2TFt+J) Amplitude Shift Keying: A.cos(2TFt+J) Frequency Shift Keying: A.cos(2TFt+J) Phase Shift Keying: A.cos(2TFt+J)

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Modulation Overview Digital Modulation - BPSK

1

11Digital Input

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Information signal

tNRZ coding

1

t-1

High Frequency Carrier

Carrier

fo

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 J=0 J=T J=0

Modulated BPSK signal BPSK

BPSK Waveform

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Modulation Overview Digital Modulation - QPSK1 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream 1 1 1 2 1 3 -1 -1 1 4 1 5 -1 -1 1 6 1 7 1 1 -1 8 -1 9 -1 -1 -1 10 -1

I Component

Q Component

QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Modulation OverviewA NRZ coding Acos([ot) I(t)

fo QPSK90o

NRZ coding A

Q(t)

Acos([ot + T/2)

QPSK:A 2 cos([o J)J 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 T/4 7T/4 3T/4 5T/4

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Demodulation QPSK Constellation Diagram

1 QPSK Waveform

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1,1

-1,1

-1,1 1,-1 -1,-1

NRZ Output

1

1

-1

1

-1

1

1

-1

-1

-1

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WCDMA Modulation Different modulation methods corresponding to different

transmitting abilities in air interface

R99/R4: QPSK

HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM

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Processing Procedure of WCDMA SystemTransmitterService Signal Source Coding Channel Coding Spreading

Modulation

Transmission

bit

symbol

chip

modulated signal

Radio Channel

Service Signal

Source Decoding

Channel Decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

Reception

Receiver

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Wireless PropagationTransmitted Signal

Amplitude

Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading

Received SignalTime

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Propagation of Radio Signal20 15 10 5 dBm 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

Signal at Transmitter

Signal at Receiver

dB

Fading

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Fading Categories Fading Categories

> Slow Fading > Fast Fading

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Diversity Technique Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for

combining > Reduce the effects of fading Fast fading caused by multi-path Slow fading caused by shadowing > Improve the reliability of communication > Increase the coverage and capacity

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Diversity Time diversity

> Channel coding, Block interleaving Frequency diversity

> The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency spectrum Space diversity Polarization diversity

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Principle of RAKE Receiver

Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal

t

t

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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UTRAN Network StructureCNCS Iu-CS RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iub NodeB PS Iu-PS Core Network CS Iu-CS RNS PS Iu-PS

UTRANIub NodeB

Uu

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Uu Interface Protocol StructureGC Nt DC

Duplication avoidanceGC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information control UuS boundary

control

control

RRCcontrol control

L3radio bearer PDCP PDCP BMC RLC

L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLClogical channel

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC RLC RLC

RLC

MAC PHYHUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

L2/MACtransport channel

L1

RAB, RB and RL

RAB RB UE RL NodeB

RNC

CN

UTRAN

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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WCDMA Radio Interface Channel Definition Logical Channel = information container

> Defined by is transferred Transport Channel = characteristics of transmission

> Described by and with data is transmitted over the radio interface Physical Channel = specification of the information global content

> providing the real transmission resource, maybe a frequency , a specific set of codes and phase

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Logical Channel

Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel

(DTCH) (CTCH) Traffic channel

Broadcast control channel Paging control channel Dedicate control channel Common control channel

(BCCH) (PCCH) (DCCH) (CCCH) Control channel

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Logical Channel

Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel

(DTCH) (CTCH) Traffic channel

Broadcast control channel Paging control channel Dedicate control channel Common control channel

(BCCH) (PCCH) (DCCH) (CCCH) Control channel

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Transport Channel

Dedicated Channel

(DCH)

Dedicated transport channel

Broadcast channel Forward access channel (FACH) Paging channel Random access channel

(BCH) Common transport channel

(PCH) (RACH)

High-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH)

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Physical Channel A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency, code

(scrambling code, spreading code) and relative phase. In UMTS system, the different code (scrambling code or spreading

code) can distinguish the channels. Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots, and each radio

frame consists of 15 time slots. Two types of physical channel: UL and DL

Physical Channel

Frequency, Code, Phase

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Downlink Physical Channel Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DL DPCH) Downlink Common Physical Channel

>Primary Common Control Physical Channel

(P-CCPCH)

>Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) >Synchronization Channel >Paging Indicator Channel >Acquisition Indicator Channel >Common Pilot Channel (SCH) (PICH) (AICH) (CPICH)

>High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) >High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)

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Uplink Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel

> Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH) > Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (Uplink DPCCH) > High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel (HS-DPCCH) Uplink Common Physical Channel

> Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

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Function of Physical ChannelCell Search ChannelsP-CPICH--Primary Common Pilot Channel SCH--Synchronisation Channel P-CCPCH-Primary Common Control Physical Channel

Paging ChannelsPICH--Paging Indicator Channel SCCPCH--Secondary Common Control Physical Channel

Random Access Channels

NodeB

AICH--Acquisition Indicator Channel PRACH--Physical Random Access Channel

UE

Dedicated ChannelsDPDCH--Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCCH--Dedicated Physical Control Channel

High Speed Downlink Share ChannelsHS-SCCH--High Speed Share Control Channel HS-PDSCH--High Speed Physical Downlink Share Channel HS-DPCCH--High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel

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Synchronization Channels (P-SCH & S-SCH)

Used for cell search Two sub channels: P-SCH and S-SCH SCH is transmitted at the first 256 chips of every time slot

Primary synchronization code is transmitted repeatedly in each time slot

Secondary synchronization code specifies the scrambling code groups of the cell

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #14

Primary SCH Secondary SCH

ac pi,0

ac pi,1

ac pi,14

ac s

ac s

acs

256 chips 2560 chips One 10 ms SCH radio frame

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Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH)Scrambling Code Group Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 61 Group 62 Group 63 #0 1 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 #1 1 1 2 2 2 10 11 12 #2 2 5 1 3 16 13 12 10 #3 8 16 15 1 6 10 15 15 #4 9 7 5 8 6 11 12 13 #5 10 3 5 6 11 15 9 14 slot number #6 #7 #8 15 14 12 5 15 15 13 9 8 16 16 2 5 9 13 14 10 3 6 5 12 16 11 15 #9 16 10 11 8 1 12 14 11 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 2 5 2 4 15 14 10 11 7 12 16 4 12 13 16 13 15 14 11 6 16 16 15 12 7 12 15 3 11 14 14 16 16 10 12 7 2 11 16 10

Slot # ? P-SCH S-SCH

Slot #?

Slot #?

acp 16256 chips

acp 6

acp 11

..

Group 2 Slot 7, 8, 9

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Primary Common Pilot Channel (PCPICH) Primary PCPICH

> Carrying pre-defined sequence > Fixed channel code: Cch, 256, 0, Fixed rate 30Kbps > Scrambled by the primary scrambling code > Broadcast over the entire cell > A phase reference for SCH, Primary CCPCH, AICH, PICH and downlink DPCH, Only one PCPICH per cellPre-defined symbol sequenceTslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot # i 1 radio frame: Tr = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) Carrying BCH transport channel Fixed rate, fixed OVSF code (30kbps

Cch, 256, 1)

The PCCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time

slot

256 chips PCCPCH Data SCH 18 bits T slot = 2560 chips,20 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: T = 10 ms

Slot #14

f

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Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Carrying Paging Indicators (PI) Fixed rate (30kbps), SF = 256 N paging indicators {PI0, , PIN-1} in each PICH frame, N=18, 36, 72,

or 144

288 bits for paging indicationb0 b 1

12 bits (undefined)b 287 b 288 b 299

One radio frame (10 ms)

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Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) Carrying FACH and PCH, SF = 256 - 4

> Pilot: used for demodulation > TFCI: Transport Format Control Indication, used for describe data format

TFCI N TFCI bits

Data N Data bits T slot = 2560 chips, 20*2 k bits (k=0..6)

Pilot N Pilot bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Carrying uplink signaling and data, consist of two parts:

> One or several preambles: 16 kinds of available preambles > 10 or 20ms message part

Preamble 4096 chips

Preamble

Preamble

Message part

10 ms (one radio frame) Message part 20 ms (two radio frames)

Preamble 4096 chips

Preamble

Preamble

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PRACH Message Structure

Data

Data N data bits

Control

Pilot N Pilot bits T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k=0..3)

TFCI N TFCI bits

Slot # 0

Slot # 1

Slot # i

Slot # 14

Message part radio frame T = 10 ms

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PRACH Access Timeslot Structure

radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips

radio frame: 10 ms

#1 Access slot #0 Access slot #1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission

Access slot #7 Access slot #8

Access slot #14

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Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Carrying the Acquisition Indicators (AI), SF = 256

> There are 16 kinds of Signature to generate AI

AI part a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 a32 a33

Unused part a38 a39

AS #14

AS #0

AS #1

AS #i 20 ms

AS #14

AS #0

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Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH) Uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code division multiplexed

(CDM) within each radio frame DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer, the

OVSF code is Cch,SF,SF/4, where SF is from 256 to 4 DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1, the

OVSF code is Cch,256,0

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Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH) Frame Structure of Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH

DPDCH Pilot Npilot bits

Data Ndata bits TFCI NTFCI bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits

DPCCH

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k=0..6)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH) Downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time division multiplexing

(TDM). DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1 SF of downlink DPCH is from 512 to 4

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Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH) Frame Structure of Downlink DPCH (DPDCH+DPCCH)

DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits

DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits

DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits

DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits

Tslot = 2560 chips, 20*2k bits (k=-1..6)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

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High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) Bearing service data and layer 2 overhead bits mapped from the

transport channel SF=16, can be configured several channels to increase data service

Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips, M*10*2k bits (k=4)

Slot #0

Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms

Slot #2

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High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)

Carries physical layer signalling to a single UE ,such as modulation scheme (1 bit) ,channelization code set (7 bit), transport block size (6bit),HARQ process number (3bit), redundancy version (3bit), new data indicator (1bit), UE identity (16bit) HS-SCCH is a fixed rate (60 kbps, SF=128) downlink physical channel used to carry downlink signalling related to HS-DSCH transmission

Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips, 40 bits

Slot #0

Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms

Slot #2

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High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH ) Carrying information to acknowledge downlink transport blocks and

feedback information to the system for scheduling and link adaptation of transport block > CQI and ACK/NACK Physical Channel, Uplink, SF=256

Tslot = 2560 chips ACK/NACK

2v Tslot = 5120 chips CQI One HS-DPCCH subframe ( 2ms )

Subframe #0

Subframe #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Subframe #n

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Mapping Between ChannelsLogical channels BCCH Transport channels BCH FACH PCCH CCCH PCH RACH FACH CTCH DCCH, DTCH FACH DCH HS-DSCH RACH, FACH Physical channels P-CCPCH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH PRACH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH DPDCH HS-PDSCH PRACH, S-CCPCH

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Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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Synchronization Procedure - Cell SearchUE uses PSC to acquire slot synchronization to a cell

Slot Synchronization

Frame synchronization & Code Group Identification

UE uses SSC to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step

Scrambling Code Identification

UE determines the primary scrambling code through correlation over the PCPICH with all codes within the identified group, and then detects the PCCPCH and reads BCH information

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Random Access Procedure

START

Choose a RACH sub channel from available ones

Get available signatures

Set Preamble Retrans Max

Set Preamble_Initial_Power

Send a preamble No AI Choose a access slot again Choose a signature and increase preamble transmit power The counter of preamble retransmit Subtract 1, Commanded preamble power increased by Power Ramp Step Y Counter> 0 & Preamble power < maximum allowed power N Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received Check the corresponding AI Get positive AI Increase message part power by p-m based on preamble power Send the corresponding message part Get negative AI

Set physical status to be RACH message transmitted Report the physical status to MAC

Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received

END

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Transmit Diversity Mode Application of Tx diversity modes on downlink physical channelPhysical channel type Open loop mode TSTD P-CCPCH SCH S-CCPCH DPCH PICH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH AICH applied STTD applied applied applied applied applied applied applied Closed loop mode Mode 1 applied applied Mode 2 applied

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Transmit Diversity - STTD Space time block coding based transmit antenna diversity

(STTD) > 4 consecutive bits b0, b1, b2, b3 using STTD coding

b0 b1 b2 b3 b0 b1 b2 b3

Antenna 1

-b2 b3 b0 -b1 Antenna 2 Channel bits STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2.

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Transmit Diversity - TSTD Time switching transmit diversity (TSTD) is used only on SCH

channel

Slot #0

Slot #1(Tx OFF) (Tx OFF)

Slot #2

Slot #14

acpAntenna 1

acp acsi,2

acp acsi,14

acs

i,0

(Tx OFF)

acpi,1 acs

(Tx OFF) (Tx OFF)

(Tx OFF) (Tx OFF)

Antenna 2

(Tx OFF)

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Closed Loop Mode Used in DPCH and HS-PDSCH

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