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    CS2624CS2624 -- COMPUTERCOMPUTERORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTUREORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE

    (COA)(COA)

    Chapter 2Chapter 2

    Evolution of Com uters

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    -

    S err went on to

    become Unisys) Formed by Eckert and

    Mauchly in 1947

    UNIVAC I - Sperry-,First successfulcommercial computer

    (early 50s) Used for the 1950 census

    2

    UNIVAC-I

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    UNIVAC II

    First upgrade: greatermemory capacity &

    First upward compatible

    machine

    3

    UNIVAC-II

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    UNIVAC 1100 Series

    - The most successfulUNIVAC series,mos y es gne orscientific applications

    4

    UNIVAC-1100

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    IBM IBM 701 - 1952 (it sold nineteen 701 computers) IBM 702 - 1955 First business computer (text processing)

    Commercial Computers (Post-transistor) Transistors were developed at Bell labs in 1947 NCR & RCA had small transistor computers before IBM (MIT first in 1954 with TX-

    IBM started its 7000 series using transistors in the late 1950s Multiplexor bus design, I/O Channel concept

    Transistors allowed for reater s eed lar er memor ca acit and smaller size Second generation of computers began:

    High-level programming languages (FORTRAN), and system software

    More complex ALUs and control units

    DEC began building minicomputers (first PDP-1 sold for $120k in1959)

    Large screen led to the rst video game at MIT: SpaceWar5

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    PDP-1

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    Third Generation Computers

    1958: Integrated circuit: you could put transistors and other circuit.

    Old technology: each transistor was the size of a pin head,

    , , . up to a several 100,000 components to the more advanced computers

    7

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    Third Generation Computers

    Integrated circuits ne wa e usua y a ou n ame e , a oug ey e ge ng gge

    One pattern: i.e. a CPU, or a quad NAND gate, etc.. Repeat the pattern in 2D across the chip

    Put each block in a little plastic case with some pins attached As feature size gets smaller, a linear decrease in feature size in x and y is a

    squared increase in the number of components per wafer (wafer cost is there evant t ng

    Current achievements are greater than 60 million transistors in a singlechip

    8

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    ntegrate c rcu ts

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    IBM S stem 360 introduced in 1964

    First non-upward compatible line, but they wanted to improve thearchitecture of the 7000 series, and it turned out to be the successof the decade, giving them a 70% market share. This was IBMs major move to computers based on integrated circuits

    The 360 architecture is still the basis for most of IBMs largecomputers.

    The 360 series was the rst planned family of machines, withdifferent capabilities for different prices.

    360 was the first multi-taskin architecture with multi le

    programs stored in memory

    10

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    IBM System 360

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    DEC PDP-8

    Small enough to sit on a lab bench or be built into other equipment It was cheap enough for a lab to purchase ($18k).

    - - , , .

    PDP series was the first to use a bus architecture.

    12

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    PDP-8

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    PDP-8

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    Computer History

    Memory Pre-1970: all memor consisted of metal rin s cores

    that could each hold one bit 1970 - first semiconductor memory of a decent size (256

    bits)

    1974 - semiconductor memory became cheaper thancore memory magne c c rc es Since 1970 - 11 generations: 256, 1K, 4K, 16K, 256K,

    , , , , , 1Gbit memories are close to production

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    Computer History

    Core memory

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    Computer History

    Semiconductormemory

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    Computer History

    Microprocessors First microprocessor

    was t e 4004, w c wasbuilt by an Intelen ineer as the chi torun a calculator for a

    Japanese firm (he did iton one chi to be moreefficient than the 12requested).

    rights to the chip andcame out with the 8008 afew months later

    Interest in the chip

    boomed 18

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    Computer History

    Microprocessors 1974 - Intel 8080, the rst general purpose microprocessor, followed by the

    an e

    Intel 8086

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    Intel 8088

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    Computer History

    Microprocessors 1975 - Wozniak and Jobs design the Apple I using the Morotola 6502

    m croprocessor

    1977 - Apple II with all the trimmings 1985 - Intel 80386, their rst 32-bit processor (HP, Bell Labs, and Motorola

    a rea y a one 1990 - Intel 80486 and Motorola 68040 have the first on-board float point

    units [FPU]

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    Current Technology in Microprocessors

    , , Branch prediction - figuring out where to get instructions

    from next Data Flow Analysis - getting data into the CPU before it

    needs it-

    be needed later On-chip floating point units, very complex control units Pipline architectures - dividing the F-E cycle into small

    parts and executing the parts inparallel-

    operating in parallel 21

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    The bottle-neck is memory: the processors are an order of

    ma nitude or more faster than the

    DRAM: Increase the amount of memory grabbed at any one time Use cache and buffering systems

    Increase bandwidth between processors and memory, and-P4 uses a 400 MHz memory bus technology called

    RAMBUS

    RAMBUS has strict requirements about how close tothe processor the memory must be (light takes ananosecond to travel 1 foot

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    Recent developments in CA

    Copper wire (IBM development): up to an order of magnitude fasterthan aluminum

    Parallel i elines Itanium Direct support for multimedia applications (Pentium II/MMX, Athlon

    3DNow, Pentium 4) 64-bit architectures Itanium PowerPC 620 UltraS arc G3 G4 Speculative execution on a global scale 2-level cache on the processor (PowerPC G3/G4, Pentium III,

    Vector floating point processors (G4) Magnetic memory (MRAM) that is as fast as DRAM ps w t . um eatures nm are a out to come nto

    production23

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    [MAX01] Maxwell, Bruce A. Principles of Computer Architecture. . .

    COA/Endro Ariyanto/24