wcdma principle 20100208 b

of 98 /98
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved www.huawei.com Internal WCDMA Principle

Author: ann-ann-cool

Post on 28-Oct-2014

141 views

Category:

Documents


1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved www.huawei.com Internal WCDMA Principle HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Objectives Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Describe the development of 3G Outline the advantage of CDMA principle Characterize code sequence Outline the fundamentals of RAN Describe feature of wireless propagation HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Different Service, Different Technology AMPS TACS NMT Others 1G 1980s Analog GSM CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136 PDC 2G 1990s Digital Technologies drive 3G IMT-2000 UMTS WCDMA cdma 2000 Demands drive TD-SCDMA 3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved 3G Evolution Proposal of 3G IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile communication system The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in 1985and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996 Commercialization: around the year of 2000 Work band : around 2000MHz The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved 3G Spectrum Allocation HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Bands WCDMA Used Main bands 1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz Supplementary bands: different country maybe different 1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) . . . Frequency channel numbercentral frequency5, for main band: UL frequency channel number 96129888 DL frequency channel number : 1056210838 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved 3G Application Service Time Delay Error Ratio background conversational streaming interactive HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved The Core technology of 3G: CDMA CDMA WCDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA TD-SCDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA cdma2000 CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Multiple Access and Duplex Technology Multiple Access Technology Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Multiple Access Technology Power FDMA Power TDMA Power CDMA HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Multiple Access and Duplex Technology Duplex Technology Frequency division duplex (FDD) Time division duplex (TDD) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Duplex Technology Time Frequency Power TDD USER 2 USER 1 DL UL DL DL UL FDD Time Frequency Power UL DL USER 2 USER 1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Network Architecture RNS RNC RNS RNC Core Network Node B Node B Node B Node B Iu-CS Iu-PS Iur Iub Iub Iub Iub CN UTRAN UE Uu CS PS Iu-CS Iu-PS CS PS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Network Version Evolution 3GPP Rel99 3GPP Rel4 3GPP Rel5 2000 2001 2002 GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT IMS HSDPA 3GPP Rel6 MBMS HSUPA 2005 CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Network Version Evolution Features of R6 MBMS is introduced HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5.76Mbps Features of R7 HSPA+ is introduced, which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO Max DL rate: 28Mbps, Max UL rate:11Mbps Features of R8 WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA Max DL rate: 50Mbps, Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Uu Interface protocol structure L3 control control control control C-plane signaling U-plane information PHY L2/MAC L1 RLC DC Nt GC L2/RLC MAC RLC RLC RLC Duplication avoidance UuS boundary L2/BMC control PDCP PDCP L2/PDCP DC Nt GC RRC RLC RLC RLC RLC BMC HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other. Application Protocol Data Stream(s) ALCAP(s) Transport Network Layer Physical Layer Signaling Bearer(s) Control Plane User Plane Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Radio Network Layer Signaling Bearer(s) Data Bearer(s) Transport Network User Plane HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Iu-CS Interface ALCAP Control Plane Transport Network Control Plane User plane Radio Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer A B RANAP AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer SAAL NNI SCCP MTP3-B Iu UP SAAL NNI MTP3-B Transport Network User Plane HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Iu-PS Interface Control Plane User plane Radio Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane C RANAP ATM SAAL NNI SCCP MTP3-B Iu UP AAL Type 5 IP UDP GTP-U Physical Layer HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Iub Interface ALCAP Control Plane Transport Network Control Plane User plane Radio Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane NBAP AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer SAAL UNI Iub FP SAAL UNI NCP CCP HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Iur Interface ALCAP Control Plane Transport Network Control Plane User plane Radio Network Layer Transport Network Layer A B RANAP AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer SAAL NNI SCCP MTP3-B Iur Data Stream SAAL NNI MTP3-B Transport Network User Plane Transport Network User Plane HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Source Decoding Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Transmission Reception chip modulated signal bit symbol Service Signal Radio Channel Service Signal Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Source Coding AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections Video Phone Service H.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain Includes: video codec, speech codec, data protocols, multiplexing and etc. CODEC Bit Rate (kbps) AMR_12.20 12.2 (GSM EFR) AMR_10.20 10.2 AMR_7.95 7.95 AMR_7.40 7.4 (TDMA EFR) AMR_6.70 6.7 (PDC EFR) AMR_5.90 5.9 AMR_5.15 5.15 AMR_4.75 4.75 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Transmitter Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Source Decoding Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Transmission Reception chip modulated signal bit symbol Service Signal Radio Channel Service Signal Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Block Coding - CRC Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they are checked after the channel decoding. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Channel Coding Effect Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs Provides better error correction at receiver, but brings increment of the delay Types No Coding Convolutional Coding (1/2, 1/3) Turbo Coding (1/3) Code Block of N Bits No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Interleaving Effect Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay (((((((

1 1 1 01 ... ... ...... ... ... ...... 0 0 00 1 0 00 0 1 0 0 0 0 . . . 1 0 1 1 1 (((((((

1 1 1 01 ... ... ...... ... ... ...... 0 0 00 0 1 00 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 Inter-column permutation Output bits Input bits Interleaving periods: 20, 40, or 80 ms HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Source Decoding Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Transmission Reception chip modulated signal bit symbol Service Signal Radio Channel Service Signal Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Correlation Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. Identical and Orthogonal signals: Correlation = 0 Orthogonal signals -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 Correlation = 1 Identical signals -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 C1 C2 +1 +1 C1 C2 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Orthogonal Code Usage - Coding UE1: 1 1 UE2: 1 1 C1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C2 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 UE1c1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 UE2c2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 UE1c1 UE2c2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Orthogonal Code Usage - Decoding UE1C1 UE2C2: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 UE1 Dispreading by c1: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Dispreading result: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 Integral judgment: 4 (means1) 4 (means1) UE2 Dispreading by c2: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Dispreading result: 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 Integral judgment: 4 (means1) 4 (means1) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading Spreading code Spreading code Signal Combination Narrowband signal f P(f) Broadband signal P(f) f Noise & Other Signal P(f) f Noise+Broadband signal P(f) f Recovered signal P(f) f HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading Max allowed interference Eb/No Requirement Power Max interference caused by UE and others Processing Gain Ebit Interference from other UE Echip Eb / No = Ec / No PG HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Process Gain Process Gain Process gain differs for each service. If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is smaller, UE needs more power for this service, then the coverage of this service will be smaller, vice versa. )rate bitrate chiplog( 10 Gain ocess Pr =HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Spreading Technology Spreading consists of 2 steps: Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into chips Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal scrambling channelization Data symbol Chips after spreading HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Channelization Code OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as channelization code SF = 8 SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 C ch,1,0 = (1) C ch,2,0 = (1,1) C ch,2,1 = (1, -1) C ch,4,0 = (1,1,1,1) C ch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) C ch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) C ch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) C ch,8,0 = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1) C ch,8,1 = (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1) C ch,8,2 = (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1) C ch,8,3 = (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1) C ch,8,4 = (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1) C ch,8,5 = (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1) C ch,8,6 = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1) C ch,8,7 = (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Channelization Code SF = chip rate / symbol rate High data rates low SF code Low data rates high SF code Radio bearer SF Radio bearer SF Speech 12.2 UL 64 Speech 12.2 DL 128 Data 64 kbps UL 16 Data 64 kbps DL 32 Data 128 kbps UL 8 Data 128 kbps DL 16 Data 144 kbps UL 8 Data 144 kbps DL 16 Data 384 kbps UL 4 Data 384 kbps DL 8 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Purpose of Channelization Code Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical channels of one transmitter For downlink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell For uplink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Purpose of Scrambling Code Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters For downlink, scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier For uplink, scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Scrambling Code Scrambling code: GOLD sequence. There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC. For downlink, 512 primary scrambling codes are used. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Primary Scrambling Code Group Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Group 0 Primary scrambling code 0 Primary scrambling code 8*63 Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7 512 primary scrambling codes Group 1 Group 63 Primary scrambling code 1 Primary scrambling code 8 64 primary scrambling code groups Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Code Multiplexing Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code Channelization code 1 Channelization code 2 Channelization code 3 User 1 signal User 2 signal User 3 signal NodeB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Code Multiplexing Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level NodeB Scrambling code 3 User 3 signal Channelization code Scrambling code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code Scrambling code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Source Decoding Channel Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Transmission Reception chip modulated signal bit symbol Service Signal Radio Channel Service Signal Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Modulation Overview 1 0 0 1 time Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A.cos(2tFt+|) Amplitude Shift Keying: A.cos(2tFt+|) Frequency Shift Keying: A.cos(2tFt+|) Phase Shift Keying: A.cos(2tFt+|) Data to be transmitted: Digital Input HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Modulation Overview Digital Modulation - BPSK 1 t 1 1 0 1 t -1 NRZ coding fo BPSK Modulated BPSK signal Carrier Information signal |=0 |=t |=0 1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6 1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6 Digital Input High Frequency Carrier BPSK Waveform HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Modulation Overview Digital Modulation - QPSK -1 -1 1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6 1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream I Component Q Component QPSK Waveform 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Modulation Overview NRZ coding 90o NRZ coding QPSK Q(t) I(t) fo A A Acos(eot) Acos(eot + t/2) | 1 1 t/4 1 -1 7t/4 -1 1 3t/4 -1 -1 5t/4 ) cos( 2 : | e + o A QPSKHUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Demodulation QPSK Constellation Diagram 1 10 2 3 4 9 8 7 5 6 QPSK Waveform 1,1 -1,-1 -1,1 1,-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1,1 NRZ Output HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Modulation Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM R99/R4: QPSK HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Channel Coding Spreading Modulation Source Decoding Channel Decoding Despreading Demodulation Transmission Reception chip modulated signal bit symbol Service Signal Radio Channel Service Signal Transmitter Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Wireless Propagation Received Signal Transmitted Signal Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading Time Amplitude HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Propagation of Radio Signal Signal at Transmitter Signal at Receiver -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 dB 0 0 dBm -20 -15 -10 -5 5 10 15 20 Fading HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Fading Categories Fading Categories Slow Fading Fast Fading HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Diversity Technique Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for combining Reduce the effects of fading Fast fading caused by multi-path Slow fading caused by shadowing Improve the reliability of communication Increase the coverage and capacity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Diversity Time diversity Channel coding, Block interleaving Frequency diversity The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency spectrum Space diversity Polarization diversity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Principle of RAKE Receiver Receive set Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Correlator 3 Searcher correlator Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal t t s(t) s(t) RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved UTRAN Network Structure RNS RNC RNS RNC Core Network NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB Iu-CS Iu-PS Iur Iub Iub Iub Iub CN UTRAN UE Uu CS PS Iu-CS Iu-PS CS PS HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved RAB, RB and RL RAB RB RL NodeB RNC CN UE UTRAN HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved WCDMA Radio Interface Channel Definition Logical Channel = information container Defined by is transferred Transport Channel = characteristics of transmission Described by and with data is transmitted over the radio interface Physical Channel = specification of the information global content providing the real transmission resource, maybe a frequency , a specific set of codes and phase HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Logical Channel Control channel Traffic channel Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH) Common traffic channel (CTCH) Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Paging control channel (PCCH) Dedicate control channel (DCCH) Common control channel (CCCH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Transport Channel Dedicated Channel (DCH) Broadcast channel (BCH) Forward access channel (FACH) Paging channel (PCH) Random access channel (RACH) High-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) Common transport channel Dedicated transport channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Physical Channel A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency, code (scrambling code, spreading code) and relative phase. In UMTS system, the different code (scrambling code or spreading code) can distinguish the channels. Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots, and each radio frame consists of 15 time slots. Two types of physical channel: UL and DL Physical Channel Frequency, Code, Phase HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Downlink Physical Channel Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DL DPCH) Downlink Common Physical Channel Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Uplink Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH) Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (Uplink DPCCH) High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel (HS-DPCCH) Uplink Common Physical Channel Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Function of Physical Channel NodeB UE P-CCPCH-Primary Common Control Physical Channel P-CPICH--Primary Common Pilot Channel SCH--Synchronisation Channel Cell Search Channels DPDCH--Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCCH--Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Channels Paging Channels PICH--Paging Indicator Channel SCCPCH--Secondary Common Control Physical Channel PRACH--Physical Random Access Channel AICH--Acquisition Indicator Channel Random Access Channels HS-DPCCH--High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel HS-SCCH--High Speed Share Control Channel HS-PDSCH--High Speed Physical Downlink Share Channel High Speed Downlink Share Channels HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Synchronization Channels (P-SCH & S-SCH) Used for cell search Two sub channels: P-SCH and S-SCH SCH is transmitted at the first 256 chips of every time slot Primary synchronization code is transmitted repeatedly in each time slot Secondary synchronization code specifies the scrambling code groups of the cell Primary SCH Secondary SCH Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #14 ac s i,0 p ac p ac p ac ac s i,1 ac s i,14 256 chips 2560 chips One 10 ms SCH radio frame HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) slot number Scrambling Code Group #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 Group 0 1 1 2 8 9 10 15 8 10 16 2 7 15 7 16 Group 1 1 1 5 16 7 3 14 16 3 10 5 12 14 12 10 Group 2 1 2 1 15 5 5 12 16 6 11 2 16 11 15 12 Group 3 1 2 3 1 8 6 5 2 5 8 4 4 6 3 7 Group 4 1 2 16 6 6 11 15 5 12 1 15 12 16 11 2 Group 61 9 10 13 10 11 15 15 9 16 12 14 13 16 14 11 Group 62 9 11 12 15 12 9 13 13 11 14 10 16 15 14 16 Group 63 9 12 10 15 13 14 9 14 15 11 11 13 12 16 10 .. acp Slot # ? P-SCH acp Slot #? 16 6 S-SCH acp Slot #? 11 Group 2 Slot 7, 8, 9 256 chips HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Primary Common Pilot Channel (PCPICH) Primary PCPICH Carrying pre-defined sequence Fixed channel code: Cch, 256, 0, Fixed rate 30Kbps Scrambled by the primary scrambling code Broadcast over the entire cell A phase reference for SCH, Primary CCPCH, AICH, PICH and downlink DPCH, Only one PCPICH per cell Pre-defined symbol sequence Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i Slot #14 Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits 1 radio frame: Tr = 10 ms HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) Carrying BCH transport channel Fixed rate, fixed OVSF code (30kbpsCch, 256, 1) The PCCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time slot PCCPCH Data 18 bits Slot #0 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #1 Slot #i 256 chips Slot #14 T slot = 2560 chips,20 bits SCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Carrying Paging Indicators (PI) Fixed rate (30kbps), SF = 256 N paging indicators {PI0, , PIN-1} in each PICH frame, N=18, 36, 72, or 144 One radio frame (10 ms) b 1 b 0 288 bits for paging indication 12 bits (undefined) b 287 b 288 b 299 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) Carrying FACH and PCH, SF = 256 - 4 Pilot: used for demodulation TFCI: Transport Format Control Indication, used for describe data format Data N bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms T slot = 2560 chips, Data Pilot N bits Pilot N bits TFCI TFCI 20*2 k bits (k=0..6) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Carrying uplink signaling and data, consist of two parts: One or several preambles: 16 kinds of available preambles 10 or 20ms message part Message part Preamble 4096 chips 10 ms (one radio frame) Preamble Preamble Message part Preamble 4096 chips 20 ms (two radio frames) Preamble Preamble HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved PRACH Message Structure Pilot N bits Slot # 0 Slot # 1 Slot # i Slot # 14 Message part radio frame T = 10 ms T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2 Pilot TFCI N bits TFCI Data N data bits Data Control k bits (k=0..3) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved PRACH Access Timeslot Structure #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 5120 chips radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms Access slot #0 Random Access Transmission Access slot #1 Access slot #7 Access slot #14 Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Access slot #8 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Carrying the Acquisition Indicators (AI), SF = 256 There are 16 kinds of Signature to generate AI AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i AS #14 AS #0 a1 a2 a0 a31 a32 a30 a33 a38 a39 AI part Unused part 20 ms HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH) Uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code division multiplexed (CDM) within each radio frame DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer, the OVSF code is Cch,SF,SF/4, where SF is from 256 to 4 DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1, the OVSF code is Cch,256,0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH) Frame Structure of Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits TPC NTPC bits Data Ndata bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14 Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k=0..6) 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms DPDCH DPCCH FBI NFBI bits TFCI NTFCI bits HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH) Downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time division multiplexing (TDM). DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1 SF of downlink DPCH is from 512 to 4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH) Frame Structure of Downlink DPCH (DPDCH+DPCCH) One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14 Tslot = 2560 chips, 20*2k bits (k=-1..6) Data2 Ndata2 bits DPDCH TFCI NTFCI bits Pilot Npilot bits Data1 Ndata1 bits DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH TPC NTPC bits HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) Bearing service data and layer 2 overhead bits mapped from the transport channel SF=16, can be configured several channels to increase data service Slot #0 Slot#1 Slot #2 Tslot = 2560 chips, M*10*2k bits (k=4) Data Ndata1 bits 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) Carries physical layer signalling to a single UE ,such as modulation scheme (1 bit) ,channelization code set (7 bit), transport block size (6bit),HARQ process number (3bit), redundancy version (3bit), new data indicator (1bit), UE identity (16bit) HS-SCCH is a fixed rate (60 kbps, SF=128) downlink physical channel used to carry downlink signalling related to HS-DSCH transmission Slot #0 Slot#1 Slot #2 Tslot = 2560 chips, 40 bits Data Ndata1 bits 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH ) Carrying information to acknowledge downlink transport blocks and feedback information to the system for scheduling and link adaptation of transport block CQI and ACK/NACK Physical Channel, Uplink, SF=256 Subframe #0 Subframe #i Subframe #n One HS-DPCCH subframe ( 2ms ) ACK/NACK 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms CQI Tslot = 2560 chips 2 Tslot = 5120 chips HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Mapping Between Channels Logical channels Transport channels Physical channels BCCH BCH P-CCPCH FACH S-CCPCH PCCH PCH S-CCPCH CCCH RACH PRACH FACH S-CCPCH CTCH FACH S-CCPCH DCCH, DTCH DCH DPDCH HS-DSCH HS-PDSCH RACH, FACH PRACH, S-CCPCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Contents 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Synchronization Procedure - Cell Search Frame synchronization & Code Group Identification Scrambling Code Identification UE uses SSC to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step UE determines the primary scrambling code through correlation over the PCPICH with all codes within the identified group, and then detects the P-CCPCH and reads BCH information Slot Synchronization UE uses PSC to acquire slot synchronization to a cell HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Random Access Procedure START Choose a RACH sub channel from available ones Get available signatures Set Preamble Retrans Max Set Preamble_Initial_Power Send a preamble Check the corresponding AI Increase message part power by p-m based on preamble power Set physical status to be RACH message transmitted Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received Choose a access slot again Counter> 0 & Preamble power < maximum allowed power Choose a signature and increase preamble transmit power Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received Get negative AI No AI Report the physical status to MAC END Get positive AI The counter of preamble retransmit Subtract 1, Commanded preamble power increased by Power Ramp Step N Y Send the corresponding message part HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Transmit Diversity Mode Application of Tx diversity modes on downlink physical channel Physical channel type Open loop mode Closed loop mode TSTD STTD Mode 1 Mode 2 P-CCPCH applied SCH applied S-CCPCH applied DPCH applied applied applied PICH applied HS-PDSCH applied applied HS-SCCH applied AICH applied HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Transmit Diversity - STTD Space time block coding based transmit antenna diversity (STTD) 4 consecutive bits b0, b1, b2, b3 using STTD coding b0 b1 b2 b3 Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Channel bits STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2. b0 b1 b2 b3 -b2 b3 b0 -b1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Transmit Diversity - TSTD Time switching transmit diversity (TSTD) is used only on SCH channel Antenna 1 Antenna 2 i,0 i,1 acs i,14 Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #14 i,2 acp Slot #2 (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) acp acp acs acs acp acs (Tx OFF) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Closed Loop Mode Used in DPCH and HS-PDSCH Thank You www.huawei.com