two chinas

Two Chinas

Upload: hedleymfb

Post on 21-Jun-2015




0 download


birth of a new China


Page 1: Two chinas

Two Chinas

Page 2: Two chinas

9,596,960 km2 (UAE = 77700 km2 = 124 X uae)

Page 3: Two chinas

Imperial China

• Chinese emperors ruled for more than 2000 years.

• TsuTsi – the last Chinese empress ruled China until her death in 1908

Page 4: Two chinas

Two political rivals emerged to fight a civil war

Yuang Shih-k'ai

Manchu Warlord

Sun Yat-sen



Page 5: Two chinas


10.10 1911 Sun Yat-sen proclaimed a New Republic of China with Shanghai as its capital.

Page 6: Two chinas

China during War I

• Civil War continued

• Japan invaded China

• Independent Mongolia and Tibet

Page 7: Two chinas

China under Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)

• Succeeded Sun Yat-sen in 1925

• Determined to centralise control of China using military force

• Became dictator of China retaking Beijing in 1928

Page 8: Two chinas


• Chinese Communists

• Mao Zedong

from 1921

Page 9: Two chinas

• Mao wanted to establish a classless society in China

• The Chinese provinces of Kiangse and Hunan became a Communist state called the Kiangse-Hunan Soviet

Page 10: Two chinas

Chiang Kai-shek employed the Chinese army against the Communists and succeeded in over

running the Kiangse - Hunan Soviet in 1931.

Mao Zedong began a guerrilla war

against the

Kuomintang forces

Page 11: Two chinas

• Within 12 months, the Communists had lost 50% of the territory they had controlled in 1933 and 60,000 Communist soldiers (the Red Army) were killed.

The Guomindang was advised by the German general, Hans von Seeckt.

Seeckt wanted to starve the Communists out rather than engage in combat with them.

Guomindang troops surrounded the Communists. The Guomindang had a policy of making a slow advance building trenches and blockhouses as they went.

Page 12: Two chinas

The Long March

OCT 1934 – October 1935

Mao’s escape

Page 13: Two chinas

• The Red Army started the Long March carrying whatever it could. 87,000 soldiers started the retreat carrying such items as typewriters, furniture, printing presses etc.

Page 14: Two chinas

They also took with them 33,000 guns and nearly 2 million ammunition cartridges.

Page 15: Two chinas

Mao adopted new tactics using twisting movement patterns that made predicting its direction very difficult.

Page 16: Two chinas

Mao also split up the Red Army into smaller units. In theory this made them more open to attack – in practice, they were more difficult to find in the open spaces in China.

Page 17: Two chinas

The journey was physically demanding as it crossed a very difficult environment. The Red Army had to cross the Snowy Mountains, some of the highest mountains in the world

Page 18: Two chinas

and the Chinese Grassland which was an area of deep marshes which claimed hundreds of lives

Page 19: Two chinas

The Red Army did not only have to contend with the Guomindang. The land in northern China was very much controlled by warlords. Even the Guomindang under Chiang had failed to break their power. They did not welcome the arrival of the Red Army into an area they effectively ruled.

Page 20: Two chinas

• By October 1935, what was left of the original 87,000 Red Army soldiers reached their goal of Yanan. Less than 10,000 men had survived the march. These survivors had marched over 9000 kilometres. The march had taken 368 days..

Page 21: Two chinas

Mao’s rules of discipline

Obey orders in all your actions.

Do not take even a needle or a piece of thread from the people.

Turn in everything you capture.

Page 22: Two chinas

• Return everything you borrow.

• Pay for any damage.

• Do not strike or swear at people.

• Pay fairly for what you buy.

• Speak politely

• Do not damage crops.

Page 23: Two chinas

•Because of the behavior of the Red Army in comparison to that of the other armies the Communists were able to gain local support among the peasants and the poor of the towns.

Page 24: Two chinas

The Japanese invasion of China in 1931 forced the CCP and the KMT

to suspend the civil war

Page 25: Two chinas

• America's entrance into World War II spelled defeat for the Japanese.

• After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the struggle for control of China resumed between Mao and Chiang Kei Shek.

Page 26: Two chinas

The war against the Japanese had weakened the Kuomintang and allowed the Communists to regroup

after the Long March.

• Chiang Kai Shek's government had become corrupt and was despised by the peasantry.

• In contrast Mao’s Communists promoted literacy and improved food production amongst the peasants, thereby winning their loyalty

Page 27: Two chinas

From 1946 onwards the Kuomintang could offer little resistance to the advancing communist forces; when Peking fell to the Communists the Kuomintang fled from mainland China to the island of Formosa.

Chiang Kai Shek renamed Formosa Taiwan and set up his capital in the city of Taipei.

Page 28: Two chinas

• On 1 October 1949 Mao Zedong became the chairman of the new Peoples Republic of China.