The Skeletal System: Injuries and Diseases of the bones and joints of the bones and joints.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Skeletal System: Injuries and Diseases of the bones and joints of the bones and joints </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Bone Fractures Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A break in a bone Types of bone fractures Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Common Types of Fractures Slide 5.17 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 5.2 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Slide 5.19 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.5 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Synovial Joint Slide 5.51 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.28 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Slide 5.52a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29ac </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Slide 5.52b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29df </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Diseases and Conditions of the Skeletal System </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Arthritis Inflammation of one or more of your joints </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Tendonitis Sometimes the tendons become inflamed for a variety of reasons, and the action of pulling the muscle becomes irritating. If the normal smooth gliding motion of your tendon is impaired, the tendon will become inflamed and movement will become painful. This is called tendonitis, and literally means inflammation of the tendon. The most common cause of tendonitis is overuse. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Any condition that causes swelling or a change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel that squeezes and irritates the median nerve. Irritation of the median nerve in this manner causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers, a condition known as "carpal tunnel syndrome." </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a term that means "porous bones." It is a skeletal disease affecting women and men. Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones have lost minerals especially calcium making them weaker, more brittle, and susceptible to fractures (broken bones). Any bone in the body can be affected by osteoporosis, but the most common places where fractures occur are the back (spine), hips, and wrists. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Scoliosis Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. If your child has scoliosis, the view from behind may reveal one or more abnormal curves.Scoliosis runs in families, but doctors often don't know the cause. More girls than boys have severe scoliosis. Adult scoliosis may be a worsening of a condition that began in childhood, but wasn't diagnosed or treated. In other cases, scoliosis may result from a degenerative joint condition in the spine. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Kyphosis With kyphosis, your spine may look normal or you may develop a hump. Kyphosis can occur as a result of developmental problems; degenerative diseases, such as arthritis of the spine; osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae; or trauma to the spine. It can affect children, adolescents and adults. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Lordosis A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine affected by lordosis shows evidence of a curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Rickets Rickets is the softening and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency. Some skeletal deformities caused by rickets may need corrective surgery. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Scurvy The human body lacks the ability to synthesize and make vitamin C and therefore depends on exogenous dietary sources to meet vitamin C needs. Consumption of fruits and vegetables or diets fortified with vitamin C are essential to avoid ascorbic acid deficiency. Even though scurvy is uncommon, it still occurs and can affect adults and children who have chronic dietary vitamin C deficiency. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Spina Bifida Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. The term spina bifida comes from Latin and literally means "split" or "open" spine.Spina bifida occurs at the end of the first month of pregnancy when the two sides of the embryo's spine fail to join together, leaving an open area. In some cases, the spinal cord or other membranes may push through this opening in the back. The condition usually is detected before a baby is born and treated right away. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Talipes Equinovarus- Clubfoot Clubfoot is a deformity of the whole foot that is present at birth. There are several types of clubfoot that are jointly known as 'talipes', as the deformity is mostly in the talus (a bone in the ankle). The most common of the talipes is what is known as "talipes equino varus" - it is so common that the word clubfoot is commonly used to refer to this. In talipes equino varus, the child is born with the foot pointing down and twisted inwards at the ankle. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Sarcoma Osteosarcoma-The most common type of bone cancer. It arises in bone and is most commonly found in children and adolescents but a rare form occurs in adults, particularly in patients who have been cured of other cancers with radiation therapy. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Leukemia Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. It starts in the bone marrow, the soft tissue inside most bones. Bone marrow is where blood cells are made.When you are healthy, your bone marrow makes: White blood cells, which help your body fight infection. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Platelets, which help your blood clot.When you have leukemia, the bone marrow starts to make a lot of abnormal white blood cells, called leukemia cells. They don't do the work of normal white blood cells, they grow faster than normal cells, and they don't stop growing when they should. White blood cells Red blood cells Platelets </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Bone Marrow Biopsy </li> </ul>

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