the skeletal system chapters 6 & 7. the skeletal system parts of the skeletal system –bones...
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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTERS 6 & 7 Slide 2 The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Slide 3 Bones of the Human Body The adult skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Figure 5.2b Slide 4 Acro--clastLambd--physis Arthro-Chondr-Lumb-Semi- Cap-Costa-Meta-Sterno- -blastCrist-Os-, Osteo-Sym- Cervic-Ethm-Peri-Synovi(o)- Slide 5 Functions of Bones Support of the body Protection of soft organs Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of minerals Blood cell formation Storage of fats Slide 6 Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape pg 70 SG Figure 5.1 Slide 7 Classification of Bones Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, Humerus Slide 8 Classification of Bones Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals Slide 9 Classification of Bones Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum Slide 10 Classification of Bones Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip Slide 11 Gross Anatomy of the typical long bone pg 72 of SG Epiphysis Diaphysis Articular cartilage Epiphyseal line Spongy bone Compact bone Medullary cavity Periosteum Slide 12 Components Mature bone cells are Osteocytes Slide 13 Microscopic Structure of Bone Haversian canal Lacunae Osteocytes Lamellae Canaliculi Volkmanns canals Matrix Pg. text, 176 #A5 SG Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Bone Markings Surface features of bones Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Passages for nerves and blood vessels Categories of bone markings Projections and processes grow out from the bone surface Depressions or cavities indentations Slide 18 Bone Markings Projections/sites of muscle and ligament attachment Tuberosity Crest Trochanter Line Tubercle Epicondyle Spine Process Projections/sites that form joints Head Facet Condyle Ramus Slide 19 More Bone Markings Cavities Sinus Depressions/Openings allow blood vessels and nerves to pass Meatus Fossa Groove Fissure Foramen Slide 20 Table 7.2 pg 198 Head rounded articular process at the proximal end of a bone Condyle rounded articular process at the distal end of a bone Epicondyle a small raised area above a condyle for joint capsule attachment Foramen a short passageway through bone for vessels and nerves Meatus a long canal like passageway Slide 21 Fossa a depression in bone Sinus a cavity in bone lined by a mucous membrane Trochanter very large projection Tuberosity a large rounded projection for muscle attachment Tubercle a small rounded projection Fissure a slit like opening through bone Facet smooth flat articular surface Slide 22 C rest prominent ridge or elongated projection Sulcus furrow along a bone surface where a blood vessel, nerve or tendon is located Spine sharp, slender often pointed projection Using an Anatomy Atlas, see if you can identify bone surface markings on the skeleton and unarticulated bones at the front of the room Slide 23 Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Slide 24 Pg 73 SG Color Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton With a key Slide 25 Slide 26 The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal part of the body Divided into three parts Skull Vertebral column Bony thorax Slide 27 The Skull Text pg. 199 204 Color each of the bones of the skull Slide 28 The Skull Two sets of bones Cranium Facial bones Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Paranasal sinusesText pg. 211Paranasal sinuses Slide 34 Slide 35 The Vertebral Column Text pg. 213 Slide 36 Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Slide 37 Spinal abnormalities Lordosis Kyphosis Scoliosis Text pg. 226 Slide 38 Function determines Stucture Slide 39 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae Figure 5.16 Slide 40 Regional Characteristics Figure 5.17ab Slide 41 Regional Characteristics Figure 5.17cd Slide 42 The Vertebrae Text pg. 217 Slide 43 text pg.219 Slide 44 Bony thorax Rib cage Text pg. 223 Slide 45 Forms a cage to protect organs Slide 46 Made up of 3 parts Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae Slide 47 Slide 48 The Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdleText pg. 232 Slide 49 Clavicle and Scapula Slide 50 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Composed of two bones Clavicle collarbone Scapula shoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement Slide 51 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Figure 5.20cd Slide 52 Upper limb Text Pg235 Slide 53 Wrist and hand Text pg 239 Slide 54 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Hip bones Composed of three pair of fused bones Ilium Ischium Pubic bone The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis Protects several organs Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestine Slide 55 Pelvic girdle Text pg 240 Slide 56 Gender Differences Figure 5.23c Slide 57 Lower limb Text pg 245 Slide 58 Bones of the feet Text pg 250, 251 Slide 59 Fractures text pg. 185 Slide 60 Bone Fractures A break in a bone Types of bone fractures Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone Slide 61 Common Types of Fractures Slide 62 Compound fracture Slide 63 Repair of Bone Fractures Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch Slide 64 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Figure 5.5 Slide 65 Diseases of the Skeletal System Slide 66 Changes at around 60 years of age Bones become porous Haversian canals and canaliculi become plugged Osteons Incompletely mineralized Hypermineralized Hypomineralized Number of empty lacunae increases Blood vessels inside bones are sclerotic Microinfractions in areas of strain or over-use Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts no longer in balance Slide 67 Diseases/Disorders Osteoporosis Osteogenic sarcoma Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Osteopenia Slide 68 Osteoporosis Decreased bone mass Increased fractures Loss of Estrogen decreased Osteoblasts Slide 69 Osteomalacia soft bones due to inadequate calcification Osteogenic sarcoma Malignant bone tumor Slide 70 Osteopenia Decreased bone mass Osteomyelitis Bone infection