The Human Skeleton The Skeletal System Slide 5.1  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Human Skeleton </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Skeletal System Slide 5.1 Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton limbs and girdle </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Functions of the Skeletal System Provides shape and form Provides shape and form Supporting, protecting, and allowing bodily movement Supporting, protecting, and allowing bodily movement Produces blood for blood cells Produces blood for blood cells Storing minerals Storing minerals </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Skeleton Is Divided Into Two Distinct Parts: THE AXIAL SKELETON CONSISTS OF BONES THAT FORM THE AXIS OF THE BODY AND SUPPORT AND PROTECT THE ORGANS OF THE HEAD, NECK, AND TRUNK. THE AXIAL SKELETON CONSISTS OF BONES THAT FORM THE AXIS OF THE BODY AND SUPPORT AND PROTECT THE ORGANS OF THE HEAD, NECK, AND TRUNK. THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON IS COMPOSED OF BONES THAT ANCHOR THE APPENDAGES TO THE AXIAL SKELETON. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> B1. Human Endoskeleton made of a. Axial: skull, backbone, ribs, sternum b. Appendicular: arms, legs, shoulders, hips,wrists, ankles Boo ! </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Axial Skeleton Slide 5.20b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Skull Slide 5.21a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two sets of bones Cranium Facial bones Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Bones of the Skull Slide 5.22 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.11 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Fetal Skull Slide 5.27a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length Figure 5.13 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Fetal Skull Slide 5.27b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fontanelles fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones Allow the brain to grow Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Figure 5.13 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> The Hyoid Bone Slide 5.26 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue Figure 5.12 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> The Vertebral Column Slide 5.28 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Bony Thorax Slide 5.31a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Forms a cage to protect major organs Figure 5.19a </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> The Bony Thorax Slide 5.31b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Made-up of three parts Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae Figure 5.19a </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> The Appendicular Skeleton Slide 5.32a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> The Appendicular Skeleton Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Slide 5.33 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Composed of two bones Clavicle collarbone Scapula shoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Slide 5.34a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Bones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.35a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The arm is formed by a single bone Humerus Figure 5.21a, b </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Bones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.35b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The forearm has two bones Ulna Radius Figure 5.21c </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Bones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.36 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The hand Carpals wrist Metacarpals palm Phalanges fingers Figure 5.22 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> The Pelvis Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Gender Differences of the Pelvis Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Bones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.40a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The thigh has one bone Femur thigh bone </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Bones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.40b Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The leg has two bones Tibia Fibula </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Bones of the Lower Limbs Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The foot Tarsus ankle Metatarsals sole Phalanges toes Figure 5.25 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings HIP BONES COMPOSED OF THREE PAIR OF FUSED BONES ILIUM ISCHIUM PUBIC BONE THE TOTAL WEIGHT OF THE UPPER BODY RESTS ON THE PELVIS PROTECTS SEVERAL ORGANS REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS URINARY BLADDER PART OF THE LARGE INTESTINE </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Endoskeletons also have. 1c. Ligaments that hold bone to bone 1d. Tendons that hold muscle to bone, muscle tenders 1e. Joints where 2 bones come together </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Types of Bones THE BONES OF THE BODY FALL INTO FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES: LONG BONES, SHORT BONES, FLAT BONES, AND IRREGULAR BONES. LONG BONES ARE LONGER THAN THEY ARE WIDE AND WORK AS LEVERS. THE BONES OF THE UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITIES ARE OF THIS TYPE. SHORT BONES ARE SHORT, CUBE- SHAPED, AND FOUND IN THE WRISTS AND ANKLES. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> FLAT BONES HAVE BROAD SURFACES FOR PROTECTION OF ORGANS AND ATTACHMENT OF MUSCLES IRREGULAR BONES ARE ALL OTHERS THAT DO NOT FALL BONES ARE ALL OTHERS THAT DO NOT FALL INTO THE PREVIOUS CATEGORIES. THEY INTO THE PREVIOUS CATEGORIES. THEY HAVE VARIED SHAPES, SIZES, AND HAVE VARIED SHAPES, SIZES, AND SURFACES FEATURES AND INCLUDE THE BONES OF THE VERTEBRAE AND A FEW IN THE SKULL. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Bone Composition Bones are composed of tissue that may take one of two forms. Compact, or dense bone, and spongy, or cancellous, bone. Most bones contain both types. Compact bone is dense, hard, and forms the protective exterior portion of all bones. Spongy bone is inside the compact bone and is very porous (full of tiny holes). Spongy bone occurs in most bones. The bone tissue is composed of several types of bone cells embedded in a web of inorganic salts (mostly calcium and phosphorus) to give the bone strength, and collagenous fibers and ground substance to give the bone flexibility.bone cells </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Types of joints (joints are also called articulations) </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings SYNARTHROSES IMMOVABLE JOINTS AMPHIARTHROSES SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE JOINTS DIARTHROSES FREELY MOVEABLE JOINTS </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> FIBROUS JOINTS Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings BONES UNITED BY FIBROUS TISSUE SYNARTHROSIS OR LARGELY IMMOVABLE. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> SYNOVIAL JOINTS FREELY MOVEABLE JOINTS FREELY MOVEABLE JOINTS ENCAPSULATED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE ENCAPSULATED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE THE CONNCTIVE TISSUE SECRETES SYNOVIAL FLUID THE CONNCTIVE TISSUE SECRETES SYNOVIAL FLUID THE EPIPHYSIS OF THE BONES IS COVERED WITH CARTILAGE THE EPIPHYSIS OF THE BONES IS COVERED WITH CARTILAGE HAVE TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS AROUND THEM HAVE TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS AROUND THEM </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS MOSTLY AMPHIARTHROSIS Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bones connected by cartilage Examples Pubic symphysis Intervertebral joints Figure 5.27b, c </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Types of synovial joints Gliding joints, the articulating surfaces are typically flat Gliding joints, the articulating surfaces are typically flat Hinge joints, found in the fingers and elbow; the spoon-like surface fits into a concave surface Hinge joints, found in the fingers and elbow; the spoon-like surface fits into a concave surface </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Ball and socket, shoulder joint; where a ball fits into a cuplike depression Ball and socket, shoulder joint; where a ball fits into a cuplike depression Pivot joints, found between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna; surface fits into a ring formed by bone and ligament Pivot joints, found between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna; surface fits into a ring formed by bone and ligament </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> THE SYNOVIAL JOINT Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.28 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS CARTILAGE FILL THE SPACE BETWEEN THE JOINTS, ALLOWING ONLY A LITTLE MOTION CARTILAGE FILL THE SPACE BETWEEN THE JOINTS, ALLOWING ONLY A LITTLE MOTION BETWEEN VERTEBRAE BETWEEN VERTEBRAE BETWEEN STERNUM AND RIBS BETWEEN STERNUM AND RIBS </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> FIBROUS JOINTS FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE JOINS THE BONES (FONTANELLES) FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE JOINS THE BONES (FONTANELLES) NO REAL SPACE BETWEEN BONES NO REAL SPACE BETWEEN BONES ALLOWS BONES OF SKULL TO CROSS DURING CHILDBIRTH ALLOWS BONES OF SKULL TO CROSS DURING CHILDBIRTH </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Types of Joints </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> CHANGES IN THE HUMAN SKELETON Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Joints </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> BONE GROWTH Slide 5.13a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood New cartilage is continuously formed Older cartilage becomes ossified Cartilage is broken down Bone replaces cartilage </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Joint Damage: Arthritis Joint Damage: Arthritis </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Bone Deformation: Lack of Vitamin D Bow-legged </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> BONE FRACTURES Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A break in a bone Types of bone fractures Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> COMMON TYPES OF FRACTURES Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Thighbones are usually stronger, pound for pound, than reinforced concrete. Thighbones are usually stronger, pound for pound, than reinforced concrete. Men's bones tend to be larger and heavier than women's bones. Men's bones tend to be larger and heavier than women's bones. The hip bone is actually six bones joined to the sacrum to form the pelvis The hip bone is actually six bones joined to the sacrum to form the pelvis There are 230 joints in the body There are 230 joints in the body The femur is the longest bone in the body The femur is the longest bone in the body You shrink 1/2" during the day, due to compression of the spinal column You shrink 1/2" during the day, due to compression of the spinal column Bones are 1/5 of the total body weight Bones are 1/5 of the total body weight There are 26 bones in the foot There are 26 bones in the foot The last bone to mature is the collar bone The last bone to mature is the collar bone One in 20 people has an extra rib One in 20 people has an extra rib The smallest bone in your body, located in your ear, is smaller than a grain of rice The smallest bone in your body, located in your ear, is smaller than a grain of rice </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Is The Funny Bone Really Funny? Actually, the funny bone has nothing to do with laughter. In fact, it isn't even a bone at all. It is really a nerve called the ulnar nerve. But, it runs right next to the "humerus." Get it? "Humerus." That's where "funny bone" comes from. Is The Funny Bone Really Funny? Actually, the funny bone has nothing to do with laughter. In fact, it isn't even a bone at all. It is really a nerve called the ulnar nerve. But, it runs right next to the "humerus." Get it? "Humerus." That's where "funny bone" comes from. When you bend your elbow, you have this ulnar nerver that is much easier to get to than most nerves are. So, when you hit your elbow, the nerve also gets whacked and begins to send messages that travel all the way up your arm, to your spinal cord and along your spinal cord to your brain. When you bend your elbow, you have this ulnar nerver that is much easier to get to than most nerves are. So, when you hit your elbow, the nerve also gets whacked and begins to send messages that travel all the way up your arm, to your spinal cord and along your spinal cord to your brain. The result: a tingling sensation that shoots from your elbow, where the impact occurred, to the tip of your little finger (which is where the nerve ends). The result: a tingling sensation that shoots from your elbow, where the impact occurred, to the tip of your little finger (which is where the nerve ends). That's why it hurts. Not so funny, is it? That's why it hurts. Not so funny, is it? (Sources include: Science Web, Guardian (Sources include: Science Web, GuardianScience WebGuardianScience WebGuardian </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> </ul>

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